APHG Chapter 11 Agriculture

chapter 11
Organic Culture
approach to farming and ranching that avoids the use of herbicides, pesticides, growth hormones, and other synthetic inputs
the purposeful tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber
Primary Economic Activity
economic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment-- such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture
Secondary Economic Activity
economic activity involving the processing of raw materials and their transformation into finished industrial products; the manufacturing sector
Tertiary Economic Activity
economic activity associated with the provision fo services (transportation, banking, retailing, education, routine, office-based jobs)
Quaternary Economic Activity
service sector industires concerned with the collection, processing, and manipuation of information and capital (finance, administration, insurance, legal services)
Quinary Economic Activity
service sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge skill (scientific research, high-level management)
Plant Domestication
genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention
Root Crops
crops that are reproduced by cultivating either the roots or cuttings from the plants
Seed Crops
crop that is reproduced by cultivating the seeds of the plants
First Agricultural Revolution
Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication.
Animal Domestication
genetic modification of an animal such that it is rendered more amenable to human control
Subsistence Agriculture
self sufficient agriculture that is small scale and low technology & emphasizes food production for local consumption, not trade
Shifting Cultivation
Cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which the forest vegetation has been removed by cutting and burning. These clearings are usually abandoned after a few years in favor of newly cleared forestland. Also known as slash-and-burn agriculture.
Slash-and-Burn Agriculture
aka Shifting Cultivation
Second Agricultural Revolution
dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce
von Thunen Model
A model that explains the location of agricultureal activities in a commercial, profit-making economy. A process of spatial competition allocates various farming activities into rings around a central market city, with profit-earning capability the determining force in how far a crop locates from the market
Third Agricultural Revolution
Currently in progress, the Third Agricultural Revolution has as its principal orientation the development of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's)
Green Revolution
The recently successful development of higher- yield, fast-growing varieties of rice and other cereals in certain developing countries, which led to increased production per unit area and a dramatic narrowing of the gap between population growth and food needs.
Genetically Modified Organisms
crops that carry new traits that have been inserted through advanced genetic engineering methods
Rectangular Survey System
Also called the Public Land Survey, the system was used by the US Land Office Survey to parcel land west of the Appalachian Mountains. The system divides land into a series of rectangular parcels.
Township and Range System
a rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the US interior
Metes and Bounds System
A system of land surveying east of the Appalachian Mountains. It is a system that relies on descriptions of land ownership and natural features such as streams or trees. Because of the imprecise nature of metes and bounds surveying, the U.S. Land Office Survey abandoned the technique in favor of the rectangular survey system.
Long-Lot Survey System
distinct regional approach to land surveying found in the Canadian Maritimes, parts of Quebec, Louisiana, and Texas whereby land is divided into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals
system where the eldest son in a family, or in exceptional cases, a daughter inherits all of the parent's land
Commercial Agriculture
term used to describe large scale farming and ranching operations that employ vast land bases, large mechanized equipment, factory-type labor fores, and the latest technoloty
dependence on a single agricultural commodity
Koppen Climatic Classification System
Developed by Wladimir Koppen, a system for classifying the world's climates on the basis of temperature and precipitatiion
Climatic Regions
Areas of the world with similar climatic characteristics
Plantation Agriculture
Production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives
Luxury Crops
Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco
Livestock Ranching
the raising of domesticated animals for the produciton of meat and byproducts (leather, wool)
Mediterranean Agriculture
Specialized farming that occurs only in areas where the dry-summer Mediterranean climate prevails
General term for the businesses that provide the vast array of goods and services that support the agriculture industry