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Macrophage
Large white blood cell that removes bacteria, foreign particles, and dead cells
Phagocyte
a cell that engulfs and digests debris and invading microorganisms
monocyte
an agranulocytic leukocyte that performs phagocytosis to fight infection
agranulocytic
monocytes and lymphocytes are __ WBCs because they lack cytoplasmic granules
neutrophils
A type of white blood cell that engulfs invading microbes and contributes to the nonspecific defenses of the body against disease.
eosinophils
white blood cell that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in vertebrates
alveolar macrophage
type of white blood cell housed inside alveoli that removes inhaled particles and bacteria; also called a DUST CELL
alveolar
pertaining to the tiny air sacs of the lungs
desquamation
loss of bits of outer skin by peeling or shedding or coming off in scales
This helps men's urinary tract avoid infection
Benign prostrate hyperplasia (BPH)
cervical plug
Protects the postovulatory uterus against bacterial invasion.
What's the Infection common in women's Uro-genital Tract?
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
who recognized inflammation in 1600 BC?
Celus, Roman MD
lysozyme
an enzyme found in saliva and sweat and tears that destroys the cell walls of certain bacteria
interferon
a family of proteins produced by the T cells whose specialty is fighting viruses by slowing or stopping their multiplication
T cells
an immune system cell that coordinates the immune system and attacks many infected cells
O2 tension
Physiologic barrier to infection
PMNs
polymorphonuclear leukocytes
leukocyte
blood cells that engulf and digest bacteria and fungi
cytokines
chemicals released by T helper cells that stimulate B cells
vasodilatation
Blood vessels dialte to increase heat loss
exudate
material, such as fluid and cells, that has escaped from blood vessels during the inflammatory process and is deposited in tissue or on tissue surfaces
hypothalamus
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
il-1
secreted by macrophages. Causes acute inflammation. Induces chemokine production to recruit leukocytes; activates endothelium to express adhesion molecules. An endogenous pyrogen.
il-6
Secreted by Th1 cells and macrophages. Acute Phase. Similar to IL-1
TNF
a proinflammatory cytokine that is produced by white blood cells (monocytes and macrophages)
pyrogenic
pertaining to the production of heat; a fever
B cells
a white blood cell that make antibodies
anaphylaxis
hypersensitivity reaction to the ingestion or injection of a substance (a protein or drug) resulting from prior contact with a substance
IgM
First to appear, pentamer
What is the structure of IgM?
pentamer
IgG
Most important , Crosses placenta
IgA
Secretory antibody, in gut, milk, dimer
dimer
a compound whose molecules are composed of two identical monomers
IgE
parasites and allergies, receptor for mast cells, basophils, eosinophils
CD4+ or T4 (same thing)
quarterback of cell, most important, cell-surface glycoprotein on some T cells that recognize antigens presented by MHC class II molecules. CD4 binds to MHC class II molecules on the antigen-presenting cell and acts as a co-receptor to augment the T cell's response to antigen.
T-Lymphocytes
provide cell-mediated immunity and are processed by the thymus gland.
CMI
Cell-Mediated Immunity
interleukins
proteins that stimulate the growth of B and T lymphocytes
Cytotoxic lymphocyte
class of immune system cells specialized for attacking foreign or abnormal cells, or cells that have been infected with an invading bacterium or virus.
CD8+
A cell-surface glycoprotein on some T cells that recognize antigens presented by MHC class I molecules. CD8 binds to MHC class I molecules on the antigen-presenting cell and acts as a co-receptor to augment the T-cell's response to antigen. generally do not produce cytokines
intracellular pathogens
organisms such as viruses, TB, and certain bacteria which live inside host cells.
Cytotoxic Killer cells
white blood cells that recognize and kill cells that are invaded by microorganisms. cancer cells, tissue graft rejection
Active immunity
a form of acquired immunity in which the body produces its own antibodies against disease-causing antigens
Passive immunity
an impermanent form of acquired immunity in which antibodies against a disease are acquired naturally (as through the placenta to an unborn child) or artificially (as by injection of antiserum)
Humeral immunity
antibody, B-cells, plasma cells, antibodies
histamine
a regulating body substance released in excess during allergic reactions causing swelling and inflammation of tissues
Hypersensitivity
Allergy, heightened state of immune reabction.
Chemotactic factors
chemicals that attract white cells to the site of inflammation, a process called chemotaxis.
heparin
a polysaccharide produced in basophils and that inhibit the activity of thrombin in coagulation of the blood
basophils
Blood cells that enter damaged tissues and enhance the inflammation process and contain histamine and heparin
capillarie
connected to viens/arterys
thin, small
Delayed Immune reaction
based on cell response (immediate based on antibody reponse)
antibody
any of a large variety of proteins normally present in the body or produced in response to an antigen which it neutralizes, thus producing an immune response
cutaneous
relating to or existing on or affecting the skin
bronchodilator
a drug that relaxes and dilates the bronchial passageways and improves the passages of air into the lungs
epinephrine
a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenalin)
RBCs
Red Blood Cells
rheumatic fever
a severe disease chiefly of children and characterized by painful inflammation of the joints and frequently damage to the heart valves
Rh (-) blood
an autosomal recessive trait
RhoGAM (Rh Gamoglobin)
is a drug used for mothers who have Rh- blood to keep them from producing antibodies that could harm their future babies
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
an inflammatory disease of connective tissue with variable features including fever and weakness and fatigability and joint pains and skin lesions on the face or neck or arms
Rheumatoid Arthritis
a chronic autoimmune disease with inflammation of the joints and marked deformities
APC
ANTIGEN PRESENTING CELL