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Chapter 22 IDs
Terms in this set (37)
Czar from 1855 to 1881. Realized Serfdom didn't help agricultural efficiency nor the economy, so instituted the Emancipation Edict along with other changes that together formed the Great Reforms. These changes did not go as planned, and this person was assasinated in 1881 by a group of Jews.
(1881) son of Alex II, increased use of secret police, censorship, exiles to Siberia, Russianunification to suppress non-Russians, pogroms
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (German: Ausgleich) established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. It was signed by Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria and a Hungarian delegation
War between Austrian and Prussian resulting in the unification of the northern german states along with Austria out of German affairs
A conservative prime minister of Prussia. He was an architect of German unification under the Prussian king in 1870. He utilized liberal reforms to attracted support for conservative causes.
Blood and Iron
"Blood and Iron" was the speech that Otto Von Bismarck gave with the belief that a strong industry and military was needed in a country to have success. The blood represented the military while the iron represented the industry of Germany.
Italian secret societies calling for a unified Italy and republicanism after 1815.
The prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia during the movement toward Italian unification. He is considered the architect of the Italian Unification.
modern, Western economic theories of the effects of resource scarcity, monetary policy, and competition on supply and demand of goods and services in the marketplace. This is the basis for the capitalist market system.
war fought between the Russian Empire on one side and an alliance of the British Empire, French Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the Duchy of Nassau on the other.
In 1864 after three months of fighting Denmark surrendered to Prussia and Austria. They were forced to give up two duchies, Prussia would administer Schleswig and Austria would administer Holstein.
British statesman who as Prime Minister bought controlling interest in the Suez Canal and made Queen Victoria the empress of India (1804-1881)
A Jewish captain was falsely accused and convicted of comitting treason, really done by Catholic. Family and leading intellectual individuals and republicans like Zola wanted to reopen the case. Split in two, first army who are antisemetic and Catholic, and other side the civil libertarians and more radical republicans. Result is government severed all ties with church, no longer priests in state schools, catholicism loses a lot of power of indoctrination.
a compromise that Austria and Hungary were seperate states but were both under the same ruler
A telegram edited by Bismark to insult the French people while making it sound as though they had insulted the Prussians. This led to the Franco-Prussian wars which Prussia won handily and violently. The French people never forgave the Prussians, setting the stage for World War I
Set up by Otto Von Bismarck, war was declared July 19, 1870. In January 1871, Palace of Versailles was captured and Wilhelm I was named Kaiser. This empire was called the Second Reich.
Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882)
Thirty-eight independent German states recognized by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 of which Austria and Prussia had the greatest powers
Home Rule Bill
introduced in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, were intended to grant self-government and national autonomy to the whole of Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and reverse parts of the Acts of Union 1800.
Internal dispute in Great Britain concerning calls for Irish independence. Ended in separation of an independent republic, first known as the Irish Free State, now called Eire, from Northern Ireland, which remained part of the United Kingdom. Height of the independence movement was from the Easter Rising of 1916 and the Irish Civil War in 1921, although independence was a political aim of the Irish nationalists since the Irish Rebellion of 1798.
This letter was addressed to President of France Félix Faure, and accused the government of anti-Semitism and the unlawful jailing of Alfred Dreyfus, a French General Staff officer sentenced to penal servitude for life for espionage. Zola pointed out judicial errors and lack of serious evidence. The letter was printed on the front page of the newspaper, and caused a stir in France and abroad. Zola was prosecuted and found guilty of libel on 23 February 1898.
an economic theory advocating free competition and a self-regulating market and the gold standard, a political or social philosophy advocating the freedom of the individual, parliamentary systems of government, nonviolent modification of political, social, or economic institutions to assure unrestricted development in all spheres of human endeavor, and governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties.
The first person that tried to unify all of Italy. He preached a centralized democratic republic based on universal male suffrage and the will of the people. His brand of democratic republicanism seemed too radical for the people. Austria smashed Mazzini's republicanism in 1848.
Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, and elected emperor of France from 1852-1870, he invaded Mexico when the Mexican government couldn't repay loans from French bankers. He sent in an army and set up a new government under Maximillian. He refused Lincoln's request that France withdraw. After the Civil War, the U.S. sent an army to enforce the request and Napoleon withdrew.
North German Confederation
Result of end of Austria-Prussian War, Austria doesn't get involved in German affairs, North German Confederation made under rulership of Prussia. Major step towards German unification.
Nationalistic group/army created and led by Guiseppe Garibaldi to end foreign control of Italy during the 19th century.
the parliament of Germany before 1945 (and the name of its building). Previously the general assembly of the Holy Roman Empire, and later the North German Confederation. After 1949 it was replaced with the current German parliament, the Bundestag.
Russification of Poland
the replacement of the Ukrainian, Polish, Lithuanian, and Belarusian languages by Russian in those areas, which became part of the Russian Empire after the Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
the Second Republic was officially ended and the Empire restored, ushering in the Second French Empire. President Louis Napoleon Bonaparte became Emperor Napoleon III
Second Home Rule Bill
Unlike the first attempt, which was defeated in the House of Commons, the second Bill was passed by the Commons only to be vetoed by the House of Lords.
Third Home Rule Bill
This act created a separate Irish parliament. it was passed but not enacted
French Republic started after the end of the Franco-Prussian War, which led to the demise of Napolean III, and survived until the invasion of the German third Reich. It was the longest regime from after the French Revolution.
Treaty of Frankfurt
The end of the Franco-Prussian War, which ceded the territories of Alsace and most of Lorraine to Germany.
The theory, proposed by Jeremy Bentham in the late 1700s, that government actions are useful only if they promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
Victor Emmanuel II
King of Piedmont, Savoy, and Sardinia. Eventually became first king of a united Italy. Led the north in Italian unification and united with Garibaldi's south in 1861. Drove the pope into the Vatican city, and eventually made Rome the capital of Italy.
Young Italian Society
founded by Giuseppe Mazzini with the intention of driving out Austria and form a republic.
Prussian economic union, removed tariff barriers between German states, in step toward political unity
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