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18 terms

Test 1: History of Astronomy

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Aristotle
Most associated with the ancient greek world view
Aristarchus
Rejected the Geocentric world view and supported the Heliocentric view
Eratosthenes
Accurately determined the size of the Earth
Ptolemy
Wrote the Almagest
Geocentric Model
A representation of the universe in which starts and planets revolve around Earth
Ptolemy proposed the model
Heliocentric Model
The accepted model of our solar system with the sun in the center
Copernicus
Heliocentric world view
Tycho Brahe
Last astronomer without a telescope
Provided Kepler with the data needed in order to develop his three Laws
J. Kepler
Three Laws of Planetary Motion
With the universal law of gravity and Newtons laws (especially the 2nd), you can can get all Keplers laws
Kepler's 1st Law
Law of Ellipses:
The orbit of a planet is an ellipse where one focus of the ellipse is the sun
Kepler's 2nd Law
Law of Equal Areas:
A line from the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal amounts of time
Kepler's 3rd Law
Law of Harmonies:
The period of a planet's orbit squared is proportional to its average distance from the sun cubed
P^ = a^
Galileo
1st astronomer to use a telescope
Used a telescope and challenged the conventional wisdom of the motion of objects and the nature of the heavens
Galileo's Observations
(a and b below challenged the geocentric model, c and d challenged the idea that the heavenly object were perfect)
Telescope observations:
a) Phases of Venus
b) Moons of Jupiter
c) Sunspots
d) Mountains on the Moon
Newton
Three Laws of Motion and universal Law of Gravity
Newton's 1st Law of Motion
Law of Inertia:
A body remains at rest, or moves in a straight line (at a constant velocity), unless acted upon by a net outside force
Newton's 2nd Law of Motion
F = ma:
The acceleration of an object is proportional to the force acting upon it
Newton's 3rd Law of Motion
Law of Reciprocal Actions:
For every action, there is an eq:ual and opposite reaction.