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29 terms

Chapter 7: States of Consciousness

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Consciousness
our awareness of ourselves and our environment
Biological rhythms
periodic physiological fluctuations
Circadian rhythm
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hr cycle
Suprachiasmatic nucleus
cluster in pineal gland that releases light-sensitive retinal proteins
Melatonin
neurotransmitter that delays sleep
alpha waves
relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state (conscious)
Sleep
periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness - as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation
Hallucinations
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
Hypnagogic sensations
feeling of falling and jerking awake or floating weightlessly
Sleep spindles
bursts of rapid, rhythmic brainwave activity
Delta waves
large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep in stage 4 sleep
REM sleep
rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur; aka paradoxical sleep
Insomnia
recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
Narcolepsy
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep at inopportune times
Sleep apnea
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
Night terrors
a sleep disorder characterized bt high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, they occur during stage 4 sleep, w/i 2-3 hrs of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered
Dream
a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing thru a sleeping person's mind
Manifest content
according to Freud, the remembered storyline of a dream
Latent content
underlying meaning of a dream
Information processing theory
sifts, sorts, and fixes the day's experiences into our memory
Physiological function
dreams may provide brain with periodic stimulation to develop and preserve neural pathways
Activation-synthesis theory
neural activity is random, and dreams are brain's attempt to make sense of it
REM rebound
tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (repeated awakenings in REM)
Hypnosis
social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
Posthypnotic suggestion
a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors
Dissociation
a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
Near-death experience
an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death; often similar to drug-induced hallucinations
Dualism
the presumption that mind are body are two distinct entities that interact
Monism
the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing