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USA Austin OT Foundations Exam 1
Terms in this set (81)
-Age of enlightenment: question old ways, technological advancements, human migration and industrialization created social challenges and social developments.
- 17th century philosopher and physician
-Father of classical liberalism
-Theory of mind, mind body connection; sensory learning
-father of modern psychiatry
-moral treatment; should be well reasoned and carefully planned for each individual patient
1732-1922: Therapeutic use of occupational tasks
-father of moral treatment
Era of the Founders (1900-1919)
-existing treatment were unable to address mental health problems.
-work cure replaced rest cure
-Emmanuelism: holistic community based treatment
emphasized work cure to treat neurasthenia,
Occupational based crafts completed in marblehead sanatorium in MA
-Nurse hired to teach other nursed on active approach
-spread idea of occupations to facilitate . She is the first OT
William Rush Dunton
-Father of Occupational Therapy
-founding member of AOTA (national society for the promotion of occupation therapy)
Eleanor Clarke Slagle
-social worker who became interested in OT
-director of OT at john hopkins
-Founding member of AOTA (national society of the promotion of OT)
-Promoter of the profession
-brought together the founding members of the society for the promotion of OT
-Founded the consolation house
Postwar Growth (1920-1939)
-standardize practice and education
-Alliance with the AMA
-branched into physical rehab and tuberculosis care
Postwar growth key figures
-Franklin D Roosevelt
-Eleanor Clarke Slagle
-William Rush Dunton
-Thomas B. Kidner
Franklin D Roosevelt
-Disabled by neurological illness, helped create social security and other key recovery programs during the depression of 1930's
WWII and Continued Development (1940-1959)
OT strongly influenced by medicine; key role in rehab for soldiers; developments in prosthetics, assistive tech and neuro developmental care
Colonel Ruth Robinson
-Served in WWII
-established training programs for Therapy personnel
-Served as AOTA president
-helped creation of COTA programs
OT/PT who looked at reflexes in early development; rood technique
-Chair of USC OT Dept
Karl and Berta Bobath
Physiotherapists who developed NDT
-Bobath concept- promote motor learning and motor control across various environments
Medicare, Vietnam and the further Evolution of OT; (1960-1979)
-civil rights, medicare, and Vietnam war
-school based service for disabled children is mandated by law
-AOTF is created
key figures (1960-1979)
Lyndon B. Johnson, Mary Reily, A. jean ayres, Gail Fidler, Wilma L. West
President Lyndon B. Johnson
-presided over the viet nam war.
-signed medicare/medicaid legislation of 1965
A. Jean Ayres
expanded work of bobath and rood to develop the theory of sensory integration
Occupation: means of emotional expression
-Therapeutic use of self
-Published Introduction to Psychiatric OT
-influenced conceptual about importance of OT to human productivity
"man through the use of his hands as they are energized by mind and will can influence the state of his own mind"
New Theories, ADA and Occupational Science: (1980-1999)
-OT dramatic growth
-Occupation based practice
-occupation science is born
Key figures (1980-1999)
George h. w. bush, elizabeth yerxa, Gary kielhofner, Florence Clark
George h. W. Bush
-signed americans with disabilities act in 1990
-made MOHO model (model of human occupation)
-humans as occupational beings guided by performance systems included volition, habituation, and performance
Elizabeth Yerxa and Florence Clark
Developed the first Ph.D. in Occupational Science and advocated for research
New Millennium: (2000-Present)
-digital tecnhology and internet has profound effect on lifestyles
-9/11 leads to OT w/ polytrauma cases
-health care costs rise
-evidence base practice;research gains new heights; expands globally
Key figures (2000-present)
Barack Obama, Ann Wilcock, Carolyn Baum, Elizabeth Townsend
-signed affordable care act in 2010
Develop the centennial vision, emphasizing research evidence based practice
-PEOP model with christiansen
Elizabeth Townsend and Ann Wilcock
Advanced the idea of occupational justice as an important social aim with health implications
Occupational Therapy Definition
OT is the art and science of helping people do the day-to-day activities that are important and engagement in valued occupations.
1)Evaluation: occupational profile,analysis of occupational performance, targeted outcomes
2) Intervention: Intervention Plan and implementation
3) Re-evaluation: re analysis of Occupational performance, review of targeted outcomes, identify action
4) Discharge or continue OT
- Client's occupations in a graded or modified form to improve performance
-adapting the physical environment
-preparatory activities to improve performance
-changing the social context
-changing the way an occupation is performed to improve performance.
OT principles that guide practice
1. Client-centered practice
2. Occupational-centerd practice
Culturally relevant practice
Skilled nursing- 20%
Freestanding outpatient- 9%
early intervention- 5%
academic Settings 5%
other- smaller %
Areas of practice AOTA
child and youth; health and wellness; mental health; productive aging; rehab and disability; work and industry; academics and research
AOTA Centennial Vision:
"We envision that OT is a powerful, widely recognized, science-driven, and evidence-based profession with a globally connected and diverse workforce meeting society's occupational needs."
Forces that will affect OT in the future
-New systems or organizing and funding care
-Evidence related to effectiveness of traditional and emerging interventions
-Impact of human genome projects
-Continued development of occupational justice approaches
-Responses to community and population disruptions resulting from natural and man-made disasters
-Rapid development of technologies
Context of Occupation
Time; physical space; past experience; social and cultural contexts
-Looking inward-examining its forms, function and meaning
-Looking outward: through and occupational lens
Is occupation always good?
No, Occupation can be unhealthy, dangerous, maladaptive, or destructive to self or others.
definition of philosophy
- love (philo) of knowledge or wisdom (sophia)
-conscious framework of assumptions and beliefs that guides actions
-mode of thinking that actively relies on the framework for processing ideas and decisions.
Purpose of philosophy
1. Develop a clear and coherent professional identity as an OT
2. Hone a practice that is and looks unique among health care providers
3. explain the hidden and often underestimated complexity of the profession
Ontology "what is most real?"
defined as "science or study of being" : that branch of metaphysics concerned with the nature of essence of being or existence.
-the nature of humans as ever changing occupational beings
- the nature of human, interconnected with their environments.
-the nature of transformation and health
Epistemology "what is knowledge?"
is defined as the theory of knowledge
Epistemology: What is knowledge in OT?
-Knowledge of Occupation is primary for occupational therapists.
axiology : What are right actions?
defined as "the study of values including what is good, beautiful, and morally desirable."
-values in turn help "make explicit how we ought to act".
collaborative, relationship-centered practice constitutes a methodology that manifests occupational therapy values and beliefs about reality and knowledge.
core methodology for practice is to help clients participate in meaningful, satisfying, and health promoting occupations
Context in Practice: Clients and Environments as a whole
Occupations that are meaningful to a client, where they occur and with whom. habits; routines; musculoskeletal patterns; interconnection b/w the environment and the client.
formal statements about causes and effects or the nature of relationships among features of the world ( it is possible to test them and prove them false)
Beliefs that are accepted without question (they cannot be proven true or false)
-overarching model or framework
-to organize what we see, help focus observations and see what is relevant
-does not provide precise information to enable change
specific causal relationships
-how a specific feature of intervention leads to a specific therapeutic change
critical core of theory
-specification of the "mechanisms of action"
-mechanisms of change
-explain in detail how specific intervention features lead to particular outcomes
three ecological models
EHP (ecology of human performance model)
PEOP (person environment occupational performance model)
PEO (person environment occupation model)
all models have similar definitions.
-holistic view of the person that acknowledges the mind, body and spirit.
similar along all three models
-physical components, cultural components, social components
peo and peop- describe a series of nested concepts that make up occupations.
EHP-establish/restore, adapt/modify, alter, prevent, create
outcome associated with the confluence of the person, environment, and occupation factors.
OT practice begins with?
what occupations the person wants or needs to perform
-promote self determination
an occupation focused, evidence based, client centered approach to OT practice (most widely used model)
MOHO support client engagement in
skills, habits, routines, thoughts and feelings about themselves
process by which people are motivated toward and choose what activities they do
process whereby people organize their actions into patters and routines
Underlying mental and physical abilities and how they are used and experienced in occupational performance
MOHO 3 levels of examining persons occupation
occupational participation, occupational performance, skills
client's doing, thinking, and feeling under certain environmental conditions in the midst of therapy or as a planned consequence of therapy
Process of change and therapy
choose/decide; commit; explore; identify; negotiate; plan; practice; re-examine; sustain
MOHO: 6 steps of therapeutic reasoning and data gathering
1. make questions about the client
2. gather info on and with the client
3. use info to create an explanation of the clients situation
4. generate goals and strategies for therapy
5. implementing and monitoring therapy
6. determine outcomes of therapy
assumes as client becomes more adaptive they become more functional
-success in occupational performance is a direct result of the person's ability to adapt with sufficient mastery to satisfy the self and others
OA process' elements
2. occupational environment
3. their interaction
OA process: adaptive response subprocesses
1.generation subprocess- activated by a mechanism that explains how an adaptive response is created
2. evaluation subprocess -activated when the individual assesses the quality of the occupational response
3.integration subprocess-communicates negative results to the person
The OT scope of Practice
the use of occupation to promote individual, community, and population health is the core of OT practice, education, research and advocacy.
Domain of OT
is the everyday life activities (occupations) that people find meaningful and purposeful.
Standards for Continuing Competence
2. Critical reasoning
3. interpersonal skills
4. performance skills
5. ethical practice
Standards of Practice for Occupational Therapy
Requirements for OT for the deliver of therapy services.
standard 1. professional standing and responsibility
standard 2. screening, evaluation, and re evaluation
standard 3. intervention
standard 4. outcomes
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