70 terms

# Vehicle Operations Ch.1 VOCAB

#### Terms in this set (...)

PSI
Pounds per square INCH
acuity
sharpness of vision
depth perception
ability to judge DISTANCE and percieve space to determine how far away an object is
peripheral vision
ability to see above, below and to the sides (a person who is in a stationary vehicle and who has good peripheral vision can see about 180 degrees from side to side)
color vision
ability to distinguish COLORS
night vision
ability to see clearly in DARKNESS
The three types of vehicular motions:
roll, yaw, pitch
pitch
occurs during acceleration or braking and causes the transfer of a vehicle's weight from FRONT TO REAR or REAR TO FRONT
roll
occurs when TURNING! this shifts the vehicle's weight from side to side.
yaw
is the transfer of a vehicle's weight causing an END-FOR-END motion resulting in the vehicle turning 180 degrees on a horizontal plane
Stability
affects the degree of pitch,roll, and yaw that a vehicle experiences
the higher the vehicle's center GRAVITY the loiwer its
stability
the distance from the center of a circle to the outside of the circle. A turn or curve is a portion of a circle.
is a turn that gets WIDER during the turn much like a circle getting larger
is a turn that gets TIGHTER during the turn much like a circle getting smaller
is a turn that remains the SAME throughout, getting neither wider nor smaller. EX: 90 degree turn at an intersection.
safely negotiating a tight turn requires
less speed and more steering input
apex
is the center point of ANY CURVE
apex technique
is how the vehicle is steered in relation to a curve's apex while maintaining your lane
the vehicle's position in relation to the curve defines the
early, late, or center apexing techniques.
Early apex
is when the vehicle is steered so it is CLOSEST to the INSIDE of the curve BEFORE reaching the apex
Center apex
is when the vehicle steered closest to the MIDDLE of the curve
Late apex
is when the vehicle steered so it PASSES closest to the inside of the curve AFTER reaching the apex
in most cases the ________ apex is the best cornerning or turning method
late
the early apex INCREASES __________________ force and can cause lause of control
centrifugal
the late apex _________ __________________ force, reducing the potential for loss of control
Decreases centrifugal
This technique allows for the most room for driver error.
late apex (more room)
centripetal force
(tire traction) is the force that is necessary to keep a vehicle moving in a curved path and is directed INWARD toward the center of rotation
centrifugal force
is the force enacted on a vehicle moving in a curved path that acts OUTWARD away from the center rotation
steering has a directed relationship on
vehicle dynamics, vehicle handling, and traction control
under steer
is the tendency of a vehicle to turn LESS sharply than the dricer intends.
over steering
is the tendency of a vehicle to steer into a SHARPER turn than the driver intends, sometimes with a loss of traction of the rear to the outside
how to correct under steering?
remove the foot from the accelator, MAINTAIN steering input but do not apply brakes, and if necessary steer the car to a safe place and stop
how to correct over steering?
remove the foot from the accelerator and/or brake, steer the car where DESIRED (when the front tires have not lost traction), refrain from applying the brakes and if necessary, steer the car to a safe place and stop
wheel tracking
is an occurrence that causes the rear wheels to follow a TIghter path than the path the front wheels traveled in a turn
hold the steering wheel with a
firm yet relaxed grip
the ____________ should rest on the rim of the steering wheel and never hold the wheel too tight
thumb
holding the steering wheel too tight will cause the driver to
tire more quickly
facing the steering wheel, the top center of the wheel is in the
12 o'clock position
facing the steering wheel, the bottom center of the wheel is in the
6 o'clock position
RIGHT hand on the
4'oclock position
LEFT hand on the
8 o'clock position
if officers turn right they should move the __________ hand into the 12 o'clock positon at the top of the steering wheel and pull the steering wheel down in a smooth motion into a right turn.
right
if officers turnleft they should move the __________ hand into the 12 o'clock positon at the top of the steering wheel and pull the steering wheel down in a smooth motion into a left turn.
left
caster effect
is the forward motion that causes a vehicle to straighten from a turn when releasing the steering wheel.
eye-targeting
optical driving is looking in the desired direction of travel to avoid an obstacle and steering in that direction
anti-lock braking system (ABS)
is now standard equipment on LATE MODEL vehicles. this type of motor vehicle braking system electronically monitors and controls each of the wheels during braking to keep them from LOCKING
incipient spin
occurs just before the drive tires lose traction during ACCELERATION
drive tires
are the front tires on a front- wheel drive vehicle or rear tires on a rear-wheel drive vehicle
control of a vehicle depends on
traction
Traction
is the result of the friction a vehicle's tires create on the ROAD SURFACE
The best traction is ____________ friction
rolling
skid
results when the wheels LOCK and do not TURN while the vehicle is moving. rolling friction and traction are lost.
slide
results from loss of both rolling friction and traction. the wheels still rotate, but they do not control the vehicle's movement.
power slide
happens when a driver over-acceleratess, and the tires sping, the wheels are NOT locked but the driver has lost traction
counter steering
turn the vehicle's front tires in the direction you want to go.
cornering reqiures entering an intersection safely and properly at normal
driving speeds and making a 90 degree turn to the right or left.
proper braking is an important element of
negotiating a turn
the most common night driving error is to ________ the distance the vehicle's headlights project.
overdrive
vehicle headlights should reveal a person ___________ away with the HIGH BEAMS
450 feet
vehicle headlights should reveal a person ___________ away with the LOW BEAMS
150 feet
reaction time-
remains the same whether driving during the day or night.
field of vision- at night peripheral vision
decreases. less light narrows the field of vision
at night, it is easy to lose many
visual cues that are available during the day, which lowers the ability to judge distance and the speed of oncoming traffic.
glare from oncoming vehicles, or other outside sources can
temporarily BLIND A DRIVER.
when driving at night , human eyes adjust to the lack of light and uses
night vision
when driving in emergency mode, emergency lights can increase the amount of _____________ encountered.
glare
pursuit
is an active attempt by an officer, driving an authorized emergency vehicle (emergency equipment activated), to aprehend occupants of a moving vehicle if the offender increases vehicle speed, takes other evasive action, or refuses to stop in an apparent attampt to avoid apprehenssion.