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OB midterm Workshop 1: stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination
Terms in this set (46)
A generalisation about a group of people in which certain traits are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members
the process of classifying people into groups that are based on similar traits/characteristics
intra-group heterogeneity, out-group homogeneity
where do we learn about stereotypes?
trusted others, media and limited exposure to the other groups
trusted others (who are they?)
parents, peers and teachers
what do trusted others do?
they teach us implicitly and explicitly what roles people perform in society
(social) media consists of...
TV series, internet, newpapers, commercials
limited exposure to other groups because of...
made choices and/or life circumstances and outgroup homogeneity effect
outgroup homogeneity effect
we tend to see the people who are in other groups as more similar to one another than the people in the groups we belong to
Stereotyping is a natural human process. It is affectively neutral. It can be helpful in several different ways, namely:
It reduces complexity, it provides information: heuristic value, it makes the world more predictable and less uncertain
A (negative) attitude towards a distinguishable group of people, based solely on their membership to that group
Is a prejudice negative or positive?
Technically positive or negative, but mostly negative in discussion
Why do stereotypes turn to prejudices
the opinion gives us higher self-esteem, in-group bias and there is competition over limited resources
social identity theory
we categorise ourselves and define ourselves through group membership
positive feeling and special treatment for in-group people; negative feeling and unfair treatment for out-group
realistic conflict theory
roles reflect social, political and environmental factors and changes. Especially pronounced in case of competition and/or tension between groups.
People don't always say what's on their minds. This is either unwilling or unable, what is the difference?
unwilling is purposely hiding something from someone and unable is unknowingly hiding something from yourself
What is the Implicit Associations Test (IAT) used for?
to measure attitudes and beliefs that people may be unwilling or unable to report
Automatic versus controlled processes
Two-step model of cognitive processing, what is step one?
Automatic activation of information/stereotype. It is effortless, instantaneous and subconscious
Two-step model of cognitive processing, what is step two?
Controlled processing to suppress or ignore the stereotype. It is effortful, delayed and conscious
Why do we automate?
The cognitive capability of the brain is limited
When do we automate?
When we are pressed for time, preoccupied, tired and emotionally aroused
We automate when we...
lack time or energy to make deliberate or controlled judgements
factors that bias our perception
attention, illusory correlations and confirmation bias
limited cognitive resources
resistant to change
how to revise our biased stereotypical beliefs?
presenting disconforming information
each piece of info slowly modify beliefs
a powelful, salient piece of info radically changes beliefs
new subtype belief is created to accommodate
how do stereotypes and prejudices affect us?
they can influence behaviour of people who do not necessarily believe in them and influence the behaviour and perfomance of a member of a stereotyped group
apprehension that one's behaviour might confirm a negative cultural stereotype
stereotype threat creates...
stereotype threat depends on...
stereotype threat is pronounced...
when domain is important to self
how to reduce prejudice?
the contact hypothesis
the contact hypothesis
merely bringing members of different groups into contact with each other will erode prejudice
prejudices reduces and self-esteem raises only when...
the interaction arouses positive and pleasant expereniences
six conditions when contact reduces prejudice
mutual interdependence, a commom goal, equal status of group members, having informal interpersonal contact, having multiple contacts with several member of the out-group, when social norms are in place that promote equality
imagined intergroup contact (only when positive and pleasant)
the mental simulation of a social interaction with a member or members of an out-group category
Unjustified negative or harmful actions towards a member of a group simply because of his or her membership in that group
examples of discrimination
sexism, racism and ageism
prejudice and discrimination could be institutional where...
stereotypical information abounds and where discriminatory behaviour is the norm
the reason for institutional discrimination is...
Recommended textbook explanations
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
Richard A. Kasschau
Katherine Minter, Mary Spilis, William Elmhorst
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