jibreel (gabriel), allah
the angel ___ (archangel ___) ordered muahmmad to preach the word of ___ (arabic for god) to the Arabs.
Stone building with statues of many gods inside
Arabs believed it was built by Abraham
Means cube in Arabic
declaration of faith (there is no god but god [allah] and muhammad is his prophet), worship 5 times a day facing mecca, give alms or charity to the needy, fast from the first light of day to sunset during the holy month of Ramadan (The month Muhammad had his vision of the Angel Jibreel and received God's revelations), make a pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime, if possible.
name the 5 pillars of islam
honesty, generosity, social justice, harsh penalties for stealing and murder
what things does god's message emphasize?
Recite the words of the witness or declaration of faith: "THERE IS NO god BUT GOD AND MUHAMMAD IS HIS PROPHET".
Fast or go without food and drink from the first light of day to sunset during the month of Ramadan (the 9th month of the Muslim year - The month Muhammad had his vision of the Angel Jibreel and received God's revelations)
the Islamic system of law is called...
it is an immense body of law that muslim scholars developed to interpret the Qur'an
islamic laws govern meny aspects of life.
muslims are forbidden to drink(?) or to eat........because like the Jews, they thought it was unclean
an early convert to islam who wanted to continue the prophet's work - also the successor to muhammad
people of the book
what did arabs call jews, christians, and zoroastrians, who they were tolerant of? they let them worship because they all have faith in the same god and muhammad taught religious tolerance.
pay extra taxes, put to death
non-muslims who weren't people of the book had to accept islam or ___ ___ ___. if they refused, they were ___ ___ ___.
A group of Arabs located at the western end of the Mediterranean. they converted to islam and went after new territories
jabal tariq, gi'braltar
the rock that general tariq passed in 711 was known as ___ ___ (the mountain of tariq), but later known as ___. (THE ROCK OF GIBRALTAR!)
sunni, Qur'an, caliph, authority
the ___ believe that the only intercessor between god and his believers is the ___. they believe that the ___ should be chosen by muslim leaders. this person should be a pious leader but not a religious ___.
shi'ah/shiites, person, qur'an, fatima, ali
the ___/___ believe that a ___, not the ___, is the proper intermediary between God and his believers. the only true successors are muhammad are the descendants of his daughter ___ and his son-in-law ___.
These descendants of muhammad were known as____. it is the person the Shi'ahs looked to as having both the spiritual and secular authority.
___ was the 4th caliph but was assassinated by sunnis. so, many shiites died in battle agaiinst the sunnis. shiites admired ___ as a demonstration of faith.
Muslim Mystics who claimed special knowledge from God and could communicate directly with God. They tried to lead very simple, pious lives centered on God similar to Monks in Monasteries. they Meditated and fasted, had Miraculous powers, and believed faith in God was the only mark of a person's worth. they spread Islam through missionary work
same god, qur'an is a sacred book, and make the hajj
what do the sunnis, shiites, and sufis have in common? remember: The ideas of the Qur'an are basic to all groups. According to Islamic belief, the Qur'an could not contain any errors because God dictated it directly to Muhammad.
religous practices, laws, daily life
what are differences between the sunnis, shiites, and sufis. also: 90% of Muslims are Sunni, and most Shiites live in Iran, Lebanon, Iraq and Yemen
___-speaking people invaded the middle east. they were nomadic herders, and were warlike - skillful on horseback.
battle of manzikert, 1701
what battle defeated the byzantines in what year? because of this, Byzantines call for aid from Christians in the West and Crusades slowed Turkish expansion
what group captured constantinople in 1453 and made it the capital of the ___ empire? they allowed non-muslims to practice their own religion
communites that religious minorites grouped in under the ottomans. they had some self government, established their own schools, courts, and taxes, and if a muslim committed a crime in their community, they had no authority to judge them.
___ were groups of slaves which organized into an infantry. they were bodyguards of the ___ and became very influential in government (like the praetorian guards in rome)
___ or ___ means dower - not a purchase price for marriage, but a gesture of love. if the woman was to get divorced she keeps the money.
true or false: Men are not responsible for economic needs of the family, and security and protection
true or false: father and husband are responsible for the women in all respects - even behavior
a small instrument used to determine latitude and calculated the position of planets and stars that geographers and navigators perfected
al-rasi/rhazes, eye, small pox, measles, encyclopedia
___/___ wrote about surgery diseases of the ___, ___ ___, and ___. he created a medical ___ used for years in europe.
ibn sina/avicenna, canon of medicine,
___/___ was a philosopher and physician. he wrote the ___ _ ___, which is a medical textbook written like an encyclopedia
math, reunion of broken parts
muslims excelled at ___. the perfected algebra as a science. the word algebra comes from al-jabr which means.........
one wife of a muslim ruler that would marry a new bride each night that went in place of her sister. she told stories for 1001 nights and he didn't kill her. the thousand and one arabian nights
sinbad the sailor, aladdin, ali baba and the forty thieves
The Thousand and One (Arabian) Nights included 3 stories..................
they are now a big part of western folklore (translated from arabic)
700 - 1000
YEAR ............. muslim culture:
***A group "following the letter of the Qur'an" rose to power.
***They opposed free thought and foreign ideas.
-Invaders destroyed the Muslim world.
-Mongols - destroyed cultural centers and killed 5 million people.