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terms and names


usually wealthy property owners and nobility


most middle-class business leaders and merchants


favored drastic change to extend democracy to the people as a whole


the belief that one's greatest loyalty should not be to a king or an empire but to a nation of people who share a common culture and history


a nation becomes this when it had it had its own independent government


the region that includes all or part of present-day Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey, and the former Yugoslavia


the emperor who built railroads, encouraged industrialization, and promoted an ambition program of public works

Alexander III

the son of Nicholas who decided to move Russia towards modernization and social change, he and his advisors believes that through reforms, Russia would compete with western Europe for world power

Camillo di Cavour

a wealthy, middle-aged aristocrat, who worked tirelessly to expand Piedmont-Sardinia's power, who was appointed to prime minister of King Emmanuel II

Giuseppe Garibaldi

a bold and romantic soldier, who led a small army of Italian nationalists to capture Italy


the people who always wore a bright red shirt in battle

Otto von Bismarck

a master of realpolitik, who was chosen by Wilhelm, to help him solve his problems with Parliament


"the politics of reality"


an emperor

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