91 terms

Growth of New Democracies and New Global Patterns

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rotten boroughs
Rural towns with so few people that they had no voters
electorate
Body of people allowed to vote
secret ballot
Ballot for voting that would allow people to vote without publicly announcing it
Queen Victoria
Queen who was a great symbol of British life, embodying honesty, respectability, hard work, and other key morals
Benjamin Disraeli
Leader of Tories who evolved the group into the modern-day conservative party
William Gladstone
Leader of Whigs who evolved the group into the modern-day liberal party
parliamentary democracy
A from of government in which the executive leaders (usually a prime minister and cabinet) are chosen by and responsible to the legislature (parliament) and are also members of it
The Chartist Movement
Reform movement that demanded universal male suffrage, annual parliamentary elections, and salaries for members of Parliament.
free trade
Trade between countries without quotas, tariffs, or other restrictions
repeal
Synonym for cancel, which free traders in Britain wanted Parliament to cancel the Corn laws
abolition movement
Movement to abolish slave trade
capital offense
crimes that were punishable by death
penal colony
settlements where criminals were sent
absentee landlord
landlords that owned large estates of land that they didn't live on
home rule
Local self-government
corn laws
High tariffs on imported grain
Adam Smith
Believed in the policy of laissez faire
David Lloyd George
Liberal politician that believed in improving life for the poor
Labour Party
Took over the Liberal Party and passed social welfare laws to protect the poor
Fabian society
Socialist organization that forced reform through legal means rather than violence, strong influence on British politics
Emmeline Pankhurst
British leading suffragist that fought for womens suffrage
Daniel O'Connell
Irish nationalist leader campaigned for justice and freedom from the British
Catholic Emancipation Act
Passed by Parliament which allowed Irish Catholics to vote and hold political office.
Fenian Brotherhood
Organized by Irish militants to liberate Ireland from British rule
Charles Stewart Parnell
Leader of moderate Irish nationalists in the 1870a, rallied for home rule
Napoleon III
Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, ruler of the Second Empire, promised to end poverty, giving hope to lower classes
Suez Canal
Ferdinand de Lesseps wanted to build this is Egypt to link the Mediterranean with the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean
provisional
synonym for temporary (ex. temporary government that evolved into France's Third Republic)
premier
synonym for prime minister (in Britain)
coalition
Alliances of various parties
Dreyfus affair
Scandal accusing Alfred Dreyfus of spying for the Germans (accused by men in the army because they were angered that Dreyfus could attain such a high military position despite being Jewish)
libel
knowing publication of false and damaging statements
Zionism
movement devoted to rebuild Jewish state in Palestine
Maximilian
Austrian Hapsburg prince who was placed on the throne of Mexico
The Paris Commune
During the French revolution, this was created and its goal was to save the Republic from royalists
communards
French rebels
Chamber of Deputies
France's Third Republic lower class of the legislature. Members elected by universal male suffrage
The Third Republic
New Republic of France that included a bicameral legislature, with the Chamber of Deputies making up the lower class
General Georges Boulanger
Popular French minister of war that was accused of trying to stage a coup on the republic
Legion of Honor
France's highest award
Alfred Dreyfus
High ranking Jewish army officer that was accused of spying for the Germans
anti-semitism
Prejudice against the Jewish
Theodor Herzl
Hungarian Jewish journalist living in France, wanted Jews to form their own state, launched Zionism
Jeanne-Elizabeth Schmall
Founded French Union for Women's Suffrage for women's voting rights
expansionism
extending the nation's borders
Louisiana Purchase
Thomas Jefferson bought the Louisiana territory, called the _________________________ that doubled the size of the nation
Manifest Destiny
American mentality to expand land
secede
withdraw (ex. Southern States withdrew from the Union)
segregation
Discrimination of African Americans, forcing them to separate from Caucasians
William Lloyd Garrison
Abolitionist that pressed antislavery cause through his newspaper, the Liberator
Frederick Douglass
Abolitionist who was born into slavery, escaped and spoke in the North about the evils of the system
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Author of Uncle Tom's Cabin
Liberator
William Lloyd Garrison's newspaper was called the _______
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe exaggerating slavery using propaganda to show how horrible it was
Lucretia Mott
Traveled with Elizabeth Cady Stanton to London for the World Antislavery Convention, was forbidden to speak b/c of gender
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Traveled with Lucretia Mott to London for the World Antislavery Convention, was forbidden to speak b/c of gender
World Antislavery Convention
Abolitionist convention that would not let Lucretia Mott or Elizabeth Cady Stanton speak because of their gender
Abraham Lincoln
United States President that issued the Emancipation Proclamation to free slaves
the Union
this is what the US was called before the SOuthern states seceded
Confederate States of America
this is what the southern states formed when they seceded from the Union (northern states)
Civil War
War between the Confederate States of America and the Union to end slave trade
Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by Abraham Lincoln, freed slaves
15th amendment
Allowed African American men the right to vote in the Constitution
Andrew Carnegie
Scottish-born, built the nation's largest steel company (in the US)
John Rockefeller
Owned the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the world's petroleum industry
Populist Party
American reform party, wanted eight-hour workdays (labor reforms)
Progressives
American reform party, wanted to obtain women's voting rights along with labor reforms
shogun
Japanese military dictator
Tokugawas
Japanese family that seized control and hung on to traditional ways of government and society, including the feudal system
Nagasaki
Japan's only open port for trade to the Dutch during Tokugawa Japan
Matthew Perry
Brought letter from the US to Japan demanding the opening of ports for trade
Millard Fillmore
President of the US who sent Matthew Perry to Japan to demand the opening of ports for trade
Treaty of Kanagawa
Shogun Iesada agreed to open two Japanese ports for American ships, but not for trade
Mutsuhito
15-year old Japanese emperor, took the name Meiji
Meiji Restoration
Reformed Japan's traditional ways, increased wealth, strengthened military, etc.
Diet
Legislature government of Japan
zaibatsu
wealthy families of Japan
homogenous society
Countries with same culture and language
Korea
Country fought over by Japan, China, and Russia. Japan was able to claim this country because they had industrialized
Sino-Japanese War
Competition between China and Japan over Korea began this war (that Japan easily won).
Russo-Japanese War
This war was sparked by Russia and Japan's fight for Manchuria, in which Japan's troops defeated the Russian army
Manchuria
Country that was fought over by Japan and Russia, sparked the Russo- Japanese War
French Indochina
The area of land including Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia that the French took over
Mongkut
King of Siamwho studied Western culture so hard that he was able to avoid his country becoming a European colony
Spanish-American War
War broke out between Spain and the US over Cuba's attempts to win independence from Spain. Philippines were then a Spanish colony and helped fight with US against Spain, but then US took control of Philippines
Burma
Country who clashed with the British, resisted British rule, but was annexed. British were then trying to expand eastward from India
Siam
Country under the rule of Mongkut, was able to resist European colonization because they studied Western culture.
Chulalongkorn
Monkut's son, who helped his father reform and modernize Siamese culture
Jose Rizal
Filipino leader that encouraged Filipinos to work to gain better treatment from Spain
Emilio Aguinaldo
Led Filipino nationalist revolts when they were imperialized by America
Liliuokalani
Hawaiian queen who was overthrown by American planters