ch 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 Test Review
Terms in this set (49)
what region of the world became the dominant culture in the period after 1450?
From what Kingdom did the initiative for Western exploration and conquest come?
what noble was responsible for the direction of a series of expeditions along the African coast outward to the Azores in the fifteenth century?
prince Henry the Navigator
what was the purpose of the early English voyages to North America?
wealth and religious freedom, and to get to china
In what way were the early Dutch and British exploration and trade projects different from those of the Iberian nations?
Dutch and British explorations owed much to private initiative of merchant groups and the formation of chartered trading companies.
Name a European contribution to the Americas as part of the "Columbian Exchange."
what was the impact of the introduction of american crops to europe?
The introduction of corn and the potato led to major population growth in Europe
explain why the spanish failed to hold a position of dominance in world trade
Spain's internal economy and banking system were not sufficient to accommodate the bullion from the new world and lacked significant manufacturing capability.(nothing to give..gold their bring back)
what economic policy supplemented the development of colonies, particularly in northern europe
what led to the development of coercive labor?
dependent economies relied on cheap production of unprocessed goods
describe the impact of the development of core-dependent economic zones on state reformation
Britain taxed Indian cotton industry as a way to protect british cloth industry
describe the british policies toward the mughal india in the seventeenth century
britiian placed tarrifs to destroy cotton industry in India as means of protecting British cloth industry
as a result of what british treaty, did the french lose their colony in north america to the british?
treaty of paris 1763
what was the state of the russian economy immediately after the expulsion of the mongols in the fifteenth century
Russia had become a more purely agricultural economy, dependent on peasant labor
Which of the following was NOT a form of contact with the west during the reigns of the Irans.
military alliances were signed with Spain and Portugal
describe the time of troubles
followed death of Ivan IV without heir early in 17th century; boyars attempted to use vacuum of power to reestablish their authority; ended with selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613.
politically, what aspect of western culture did peter the great emulate in russia
streamlined bureaucracy and recognized military
what was the limitation of peter the greats policies of cultural westernization
westernization was limited to the nobility
what was catherine the greats attitude toward the program of westernization
Catherine flirted vigorously with the ideas of the French Enlightenment, but failed to take steps to abolish serfdom
what was one of the primary differences between the social organization of the West and Russia in the 17th and 18th centuries?
Russia saw a progressive intensification of the serfdom while the west was relaxing this institution in favor of other labor systems
name characteristics that eastern europe shared with russia
The grants of Indians to individual Spaniards as a labor system were called______________
the treaty of tordesillas of 1494 divided the world into spheres of influence belonging to who?
protugal and castile
what was the primary difference between the spanish and portuguese empires?
Unlike the Spanish empire that was almost exclusively American, the Portuguese empire included colonies and outposts in Asia and Africa as well as Brazil.
what was the basis for the social hierarchy that developed in the americas?
What accounts for the general failure of eighteenth century colonial revolutions against Spanish and Portuguese rule?
The various racial and social groups, fearful of unsettling the social hierarchy, failed to act together to unseat the colonial governments.
what are the similarities of the three muslim early empires
Similarities: origins in Turkic nomadic cultures in central Asia, based on military conquest, oriented to the support of its armies and military classes, early conquests and continued strength depended on effective use of firearms, ruled by succession of absolute monarchs, court rituals and grandeur modeled after earlier Islamic dynasties, support of expanding bureaucracies and military establishments drawn primarily from taxes, unique styles of artistic and literary expression developed, divided by Shi'i/Sunni split, motives for conquest and empire building had little/nothing to do w/ religious fervor
what are the differences of the three muslim early empire
Differences: Mughals ruled predominantly non-Muslim population, Mughals have different political tactics and social policies, Ottoman's subjects largely Christian in first centuries of rule; even though Muslim majority later, they had to keep minority Christians' interests in mind; Shi'i/Sunni split led to differences in religious practices, legal codes, and social organization
prior to the mongol invasions of their empire, the abbasid dynasty was dominated by_____
slave troops of ottomans, forcibly conscripted as adolescents from conquered territory
list some causes for the decline of the ottoman empire
Which of the following represents a difference between the declines of the Abbasids and the Ottomans?
The Ottomans were at a much greater disadvantage as a result of the more potent threat from the West.
the center of the safavid empire was the modern-day state of
why was the battle of caldiran in 1514 so important
The Safavids were dealt a devastating defeat that checked the westward advance of Shi'ism and decimated the ranks of the Turkic warriors who had built the Safavid empire.
who was the founder of the mughal dynasty?
Which of the following descriptions of the accomplishments of Babur was NOT accurate?
He reformed the ineffective Lodi bureaucracy to create a streamlined administration.
What was the critical feature of Akbar's new religion, the Din-i-Ilahi?
It attempted to blend elements of the many faiths with which he was familiar as a means of reconciling Hindus and Muslims.
following the model established by the portuguese, name some patterns of european contact with africa
widespread european colonization
describe slavery before 1450
Slavery had died out during the Middle Ages in most of Europe except along the military frontier between Christians and Muslims in the Mediterranean.
in what manner did the portuguese seize most of the slaves that were transported from africa
they traded for them with African rulers.
which of the following statements concerning the volume of the slave trade to the American coloines is most accurate?
the high volume of the slave trade was a necessity because slave moratlity was high and fertility was low
Which of the following was not part of the system of "triangular trade"?
shipment of North American manufactured products to the Caribbean
what was the impact of mfcane
The "Middle Passage" referred to
the voyage from Africa across the Atlantic to the Americas.
name a british opponent of the slave trade
Which of the following was NOT a technological improvement introduced during the 15th century in the west
In characterizing the period from 1450 to 1750 in the west, which of the following statements is NOT accurate
what was once an agricultural society had become a predominantly manufacturing economy
which of the following reperesents a difference between the declines of the abbasids and the ottomans
the abbasid decline was much more gradual than that of the ottoman
Which of the following areas was NOT colonized or claimed by the Russian empire during the reign of Catherine the Great?
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