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Jake The Cell
Terms in this set (50)
What are the main components of the cell?
Mention 3 features of an organoid/organelle
-They are living structures
-They are permanent structures inside cells
-They perform specific functions
List the membranous organoids (six)
3.Rough endoplasmic reticulum
5.Lysosomes: digestive organelles
6.Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Which of the organoids has a double membrane?
List the non-membranous organoids
What are the layers of the cell membrane/plasmalemma?
1.Lipid bilayer-2 Layers
-Hydrophobic end (uncharged) faces inwards (light layer in between hydrophilic)
-Hydrophilic end (charged) faces outwards (2 dark layers seperated by hydrophobic)
What is the main lipid of cell membrane?
Mainly phospholipids and cholesterol molecules
What are the types of proteins in the cell membrane?
1.Peripheral prtoeins- Loosely attached to cell membrane
2. Intergral proteins- Closely attached to cell membrane
What do you know about the cell coat and its function?
-The cell coat aka "Glycocalyx" is formed of glycoproteins and glycolipids.
-Covers the cell membrane
What are the functions of cell membrane?
1. Isolation (cellular homesostasis)
2. Selective permeability
3. Transport of nutriens and oxygen and removal of waste products
4. Endocytosis, Exocytosis
5.Cell membrane receptors: transmission of hormones and neurotransmitters
6.Cell coat functions in cell recognition and adhesion
7. Nerve and muscle cells are electrically excitable and carry the function of conduction
What are the types of enzymes inside mitochondria and their functional significance?
Oxidative Enzymes which produce energy-rich compound ATP
Which cells of the body contain large number of mitochondria?
What is the functional significance of DNA inside mitochondria?
Only organelle that is capable of dividing and multiplying on its own
What is the function of Rough endoplasmic reticulum?
Protein Synthesis: it receives proteins formed by ribosomes, starts glycosylation and sulphation and then transfer them to golgi apparatus.
Mention a cell that contains abundance of RER and its function
In cells involving protein synthesis, e.g. plasma cells that form antibodies
What are the main components of Golgi Apparatus? (3)
2. Transfer of microvesicles
3. Secretory vesicles
What are the functions of Golgi Apparatus?
A. Adding sugar part to certain proteins
B. Packaging and concentration of secretory proteins
C. Formation of lysosomes
D. Recycling of reusable membrane proteins
What are the enzymes inside lysosomes?
Hydrolytic enzymes (acid phosphatase, proteases, lipases, etc.)
What are the functions of lysosomes during life?
-Break phagocytosed material: primary lysosome + phagosome --> secondary lysome --> residual body
-Get rid of worn out organelles, e.g. old mitochondria --> autophagocytosis
-Suicidal Bags ( protect cell from hydolytic effects of their enzymes)
-May release enzymes outside of cell, as what happens in osteoclasts
What is the function of lysosome after death?
post-mortum autolytic changes
Give examples of cells rich in lysosomes
What are the functions of smooth endoplasmic reticulum? (4)
1. Steroid hormone synthesis: adrenal cortex
2. Drug detoxification in the liver
3. Glycogen metabolism: liver and muscle
4. Calcium release and capture during muscular contraction
What is the function of attached ribosomes?
-Form proteins that are secreted (pancreas) or stored in the cell (lysosomes) or integral proteins of cell membrane
What is the function of free ribosomes?
-Form proteins that remain in the cell as cytoplasmic functional elements, e.g. actin, myosin, and hemoglobin
Name 3 structures that contain microtubules
1. Mitotic spindle
3. Cillia and flagella
What is the structure of centriole?
Formed of 27 microtubules arranged in 9 sets of triplets
What is the structure of cillium?
Formed of 9 peripheral doublets and two central singlets of microtubules surrounded with cell membrane (20 microtubules)
What is the structure of microvillus?
More surface area and for absorption
What are the different type of microfilaments and their functions?
1. Actin/thin filaments: either contractile (in muscle) or non-contractile (microvili)
2. Thick filaments: are present in muscles (myosin) and are contractile
List the cytoplasmic inclusions that may be found in the cell
1. Glycogen: in liver and muscle cells
2. Lipids: in fat cells (adipocytes)
3. Pigements: a. exogenous: carotene, carbon particles and pigments of tattooing
b. endogenous: hemosiderin, melanin and lipofuscin (age related)
What are the four basic components of the nucleus?
1. Nuclear membrane: double membrane with pores, continuous with RER
2. Nuclear matrix: composed mainly of proteins, metabolites and ions
3. Nucleolus: aggregates of RNA and protein
4. Chromatin: genetic material of cell
What is the chemical nature of nucleolus?
aggregates of RNA and protein
What are the 3 types of RNA and their role in protein synthesis?
1. MRNA- Carries genetic information from the nucleus to cytoplasm
2. TRNA- Brings amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
3. RRNA- Guides the translation of MRNA into protein
What is chemical nature of chromatin?
Is the genetic material of the cell, it is formed of double strands of DNA forming a double helix. Later transforms into chromosomes during cell division (coiling)
Where is the genetic material of cell located?
What are the 2 types of chromatin? Which is the biologically active type?
1. Heterochromatin: is the coiled portion of chromatin threads (inactive)
2. Euchromatin: is the extended portion of chromatin threads ( biologically active)
What is the number of chromosomes in body cells?
23 pairs (46 chromosomes: diploid #)
What is the number of chromosomes in ovum/sperm?
What is the clinical significance of karyotyping?
Chromosome map --> detects genetic anomalies
What are the main 2 stages of the cell cycle?
1. The interphase: a non-dividing stage between cell divisions, divided into 3 phases
2. Mitosis: lasts about 1-1.5 hours
What do you know about the 3 phases of the interphase?
1. G1: Gap of about 8-12 hours after mitosis: cell growth
2. S: Synthesis of DNA (duplication of nuclear material): 8 hours
3. G2: Gap of about 4 hours before the following mitosis (duplication of centrioles --> 2 pairs)
What are the cells that have no cell cycle?
1. Muscle Cells
2. Nerve Cells
What are the 4 stages of Mitosis?
What happens during prophase?
-each centriole pair moves toward opposite poles of the cell
-disapperance of nuclear membrane
-dissaperance of nucleolus
- coiling of chromatin leading to appearance of chromosomes
What is the hallmark of metaphase?
Spindle formation where chromosomes are arranged at the equator and microtubules connect them to centrioles.
What happens during anaphase?
-seperation of chromatids at the centromere
-migration of each set of chromatids to opposite poles of cell
-development of a circular furrow at the equator of the cell
What characterizes telophase?
-splitting into 2 cells
-reformation of nuclear membrane
-reformation of nucleoli
-transformation of chromosomes into chromatin
What is the number of chromosomes in daughter cells after mitosis?
Where does meiosis take place?
1. First maturation division (meosis 1)
2. Second maturation division (meosis 2)
What is the number of chromosomes in daughter cells after meosis?
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