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200 terms

Psychology Homework 1

STUDY
PLAY
A life-span theorist believes that:
the developmental changes occur in the child and adolescent years of life.
Life expectancy increased during the 20th century because of improvements in:
all of the above. (sanitation, nutrition, medicine).
Life expectancy refers to:
the average number of years a person can expect to live.
The idea that no age period dominates development highlights the life-span perspective that development is:
lifelong.
Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that life-span development cannot be studied without considering biological, socioemotional, and cognitive dimensions. Dr. Temper-Harmon believes that development is:
multidimensional.
Many older adults become wiser by being able to call on experience, yet their performance on tests of cognitive speed declines. This can be explained by which of the following life-span characteristics?
multidirectionality.
Tzu-Chiang is 55 years old, is currently going back to college, and is enrolled in a college algebra course. Tzu-Chiang is surprised that he is performing well in the course despite not having a formal math class for over 30 years. Researchers would not be surprised by his performance because it has been shown that development is:
plastic.
By age 50, many people need reading glasses or bifocals to improve their vision. This physiological change is a good example of a:
normative age-graded influence on development.
Tyler is 5 year old and has just entered kindergarten. This an example of:
a normative age-graded influence on development.
When she was a teenager, two members of Anna's family were killed by a tornado. More than 30 years later, she is still terrified by storms. This is an example of how a(n) __________ event can influence a person's development.
nonnormative life
Aimee is now 83 years old. Much of her future development will focus on __________ and _________.
maintenance; regulation of loss.
Constance is 75 years old and still very active. She gardens, hikes, plays chess, and is learning to play the piano. She exercises daily to stay fit. She loves reading, listening to music, and playing with her grandchildren. Her hearing and eyesight are not what they used to be, and she is not as steady on her feet as when she was younger. She wears a hearing aid, eyeglasses, and sensible shoes to minimize these losses. Researchers would say that Constance is a good example of how development includes:
growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss.
Culture is based on the:
behaviors, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people.
Dr. Widaman is researching the cultural differences in school performance between Japanese and American children. He is comparing math scores between two groups of fifth graders. One of his groups is from Japan and the other group is from the United States. Dr. Widaman is conducting a __________ study.
cross-cultural
European Americans:
are an ethnic group like any other ethnic group in the United States or the world.
Hannah and George disagree. Hannah argues that people within an ethnic group all share the same culture. George, by contrast, argues that people of the same ethnic group may or may not share the same culture. Who is right?
George, because diversity exists among people within an ethnic group.
Ethnicity refers to:
a range of characteristics based on heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language.
The psychological and sociocultural dimensions of being female or male refer to an individual's:
gender.
Which of the following countries has the highest percentage of uneducated women?
Africa
Which of the following is an example of social policy?
a government lowering federal taxes
Kyesha is 80 years old and is typical of a growing number of older adults. Kyesha MOST LIKELY lives:
alone.
All of the following trends in older adulthood can be seen in recent decades, except:
older adults are more likely to be married.
The key developmental processes in life-span development include all of the following EXCEPT:
physical/sensory processes.
Dante is 2 years old. His mother took him to the doctor and discovered that he had gained 5 pounds and had grown 2 inches since his last physical exam. This is an example of the role of __________ processes in development.
biological
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship among biological development, cognitive development, and social development?
The three are intertwined processes throughout the life span.
Our relationships with others, changes in emotions, and changes in personality are all examples of __________ processes.
socioemotional
Johnathan is almost completely dependent on his parents. He is just learning to langue and recognize his own symbolic thoughts. Johnathan is in the period of development called:
infancy.
Joshua spends all of his free time doing homework and studying so that he will get good grades and his parents will be proud of his achievements. Joshua is most likely in the period of development called:
middle childhood.
The developmental period that runs from approximately 40 years of age to about 60 years of age is:
middle adulthood.
Which of the following life-span phases lasts the longest?
late adulthood
Development in the young-old is characterized by considerable _________, but development in the oldest-old is characterized by __________
adaptability; frailty.
The onset of puberty and the onset of menopause are examples of __________ age.
biological
Biology is to __________ as environment is to _________.
nature; nurture.
Tingfeng We was a victim of child abuse as a young boy, but he did not grow up to become an abuser. Instead, he leads a fulfilling family life. This is an example of which characteristic of development?
change
Winona was found to have childhood depression; she goes on to have depression for the rest of her adult life. This is an example of which characteristic of development?
stability
The concept of discontinuity is characterized by all of the following, EXCEPT:
quantitative change.
An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps us to explain phenomena and make predictions is known as a(n):
theory.
Martin believes that the length of a person's foot is directly correlated with his or her intelligence level. To test his _________, he should follow the steps of the scientific method.
hypothesis
A __________ is an integrated set of ideas that helps to explain, and a __________ is an assertion or prediction that can be tested to determine its accuracy.
theory; hypothesis
Roberta is 45 years old and has always had a hard time speaking her opinion. A psychoanalytic psychologist might suggest that she has developed this way because:
her parents would not listen to or value her opinion when she was a child.
The theory that was created by Erik Erikson is known as the __________ theory of development.
psychosocial
One of the differences between Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson is that:
Erik Erikson saw that development occurred throughout the life span.
As defined by Erik Erikson, a __________ is not a catastrophe but a turning point of increased vulnerability and potential.
crisis
The first stage in Erikson's theory is:
trust versus mistrust.
Marie-Ann is 6 months old. When her mother hears her cries of hunger, she comes and feeds her; and when Marie-Ann is uncomfortable, her mother comes and moves her around until she is comfortable. Through these actions, Marie-Ann is learning that the world is a good place. Marie-Ann is currently in which stage of psychosocial development?
trust versus mistrust
The second stage of Erik Erikson's psychosocial development theory is:
autonomy versus shame and doubt.
Julia is currently 2 years old. She is learning how to talk, and her parents would say that her favorite word is "no." This would be considered normal for a child in Erik Erikson's stage of:
autonomy versus shame and doubt.
Which of the following of Erik Erikson's stages would most accurately describe the developmental phase of a preschooler?
initiative versus guilt
The stage of industry versus inferiority in Erik Erikson's developmental theory occurs approximately during which period?
elementary school
"Students at this age are full of surprises," comments the high school teacher. "They come in looking and acting like punk rockers one day, then like nuns and monks the next!" Erik Erikson would say these students are:
actively exploring different roles.
George thinks he has a good life. He just graduated from college, has many close friends, and is engaged to be married. According to Erik Erikson's theory, George would be developing a sense of:
intimacy.
The main concern of Erik Erikson's stage of generativity versus stagnation is to:
help the next generation develop and lead useful lives.
Ahkilia is bitter and resentful. She looks back on her life and realizes that she has made many mistakes and was too fearful to reach for her goals. At 82 years old, she knows it is too late to make any significant changes. Ahkilia is living in:
despair.
All of the following are contributions of the psychoanalytic perspective, EXCEPT:
this perspective includes child, adolescent, and adult developmental stages.
Dr. Wong is a cognitive theorist, so we know that he will stress the importance of __________ for understanding development.
conscious thoughts
Ling-Chi is trying to make sense of her world. According to Piaget's theory, the two processes she uses to do this are __________ and _________.
organization; adaptation
According to Jean Piaget, each developmental stage is:
qualitatively different from the previous stage.
In which stage of Piagetian development do infants learn about their environment by coordinating their sensory experiences with their motor activity?
sensorimotor
Children in the preoperational stage of development lack the ability to:
perform operations (internalized mental actions).
Hidalgo is very good at simple addition and subtraction, but he has a hard time understanding the abstract algebraic problems that his sister, who is in high school, does. Hidalgo is currently in which of Jean Piaget's stages of development?
concrete operational
According to Jean Piaget, this developmental stage is marked by the development of logical, organized reasoning skills.
concrete operational
Gustav spends a lot of time thinking about the world as it is now and as it could be if everyone took more personal responsibility for environmental and social conditions. Jean Piaget would say that Gustav is probably in the __________ stage of development.
formal operational
Whereas Jean Piaget emphasized the biological processes of cognitive development, Lev Vygotsky emphasized the effects of __________ on development.
social interaction and culture
The structure of Miss Darby's elementary classroom in New York City is based on the sociocultural cognitive theory of Lev Vygotsky. Her classroom would likely be characterized by all but which of the following?
She assigns much individual independent seatwork.
The information-processing approach to development is concerned mainly with:
the manipulation, monitoring, and strategizing of information.
Which of the following is one of the contributions of the cognitive theories noted by your author?
They emphasize the individual's active construction of understanding.
Which of the following statements reflects a criticism of cognitive theories?
Piaget's stages may have been too "pure" in their conception.
When studying development, behavioral theorists believe that only behavior must be observed because it:
is the only direct and measurable indication we have of development.
According to behaviorists, what is the only correct entity that should be included in scientific research?
observable actions
Jasmine sees a student in her class raise his hand to ask a question. The teacher sharply criticizes him for asking such a "ridiculous" question. According to Albert Bandura, Jasmine will most likely respond to this event by:
not asking questions even if she wants to.
Michelle yells at Sally. Sally hits Michelle. Michelle thinks about how big Sally is and says, "Let's not fight anymore." Sally says, "Okay," and they go off to ride their bikes in the park. This sequence is an example of:
reciprocal influences of behavior, cognition, and environment.
Which of the following is a criticism of behavioral theory?
It places too little emphasis on cognitive factors
A recent television news report concluded that, from birth, boys are more aggressive than girls. You agree with this because you believe aggression is an evolutionary trait passed on through the generations, because males needed to be more aggressive to aid the survival of the species. Your view reflects the __________ perspective of development.
ethological
John Bowlby's work in attachment showed that an infant's attachment to a caregiver has important influence over the life span. Bowlby further suggested that attachment should take place:
over the first year.
"Development is best thought of as being strongly influenced by the environment, especially the various social and cultural contexts with which one interacts. To understand development, psychologists must analyze an individual's interactions within and between these different contexts." This statement would most likely come from:
Urie Bronfenbrenner.
According to Urie Bronfenbrenner, this aspect of the environment refers to the setting in which an individual lives.
microsystem
According to Urie Bronfenbrenner, this contextual environment consists of the influences exerted by the culture in which an individual lives.
macrosystem
A criticism of ecological theory is that it underemphasizes __________ and _________.
biology; cognitive influences
An eclectic theory of development assumes that:
no single theory can account for all of human development.
Which of the following is the quickest way to gain information from a large amount of people?
survey
Which of the following is a weakness of the survey method of research?
People are more likely to give socially acceptable or desirable answers.
Which of the following is a criticism of standardized tests mentioned by your author?
They assume that behaviors are consistent and stable across time.
Which of the following research methods looks at one person in depth and generally over a long period of time?
case study
Studies show that there is a positive correlation between the number of cute names (e.g., "Snookums" and "Pookie") couples have for each other and their self-reported feelings of love. This research tells me that:
if my sweetheart has a lot of cute names for me, my sweetheart also tells researchers that he/she loves me a lot.
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Correlation does not equal causation.
Which of the following methods is the best method to determine cause and effect?
experimental method
In an experiment, the researcher manipulates the __________ variable and measures its effects on the __________ variable.
independent; dependent
The difference between a control group and an experimental group is that the:
control group does not receive the independent variable.
A researcher is interested in the effect of exercise on stamina in elderly patients. The patients are randomly assigned to be in a high-exercise or low-exercise training program for 8 weeks. At the end of the program, their stamina is measured by seeing how long they can walk comfortably on a treadmill. In this study, the dependent variable is:
number of minutes spent comfortably on the treadmill.
Travis has designed a study to compare the muscle coordination of 60-year-olds, 70-year-olds, and 80-year-olds. What research design did he use?
cross-sectional study
The longitudinal method of research consists of:
studying the same individuals over a long period of time.
Which of the following is NOT a drawback to longitudinal research?
stability over time
To chart the development of intelligence over the life span, researchers spent 1 year testing the intelligence of individuals ranging in age period from childhood to old age. Which approach to the time span of inquiry would they be taking?
cross-sectional
A(n) __________ is a group of people who are born at a similar time in history and share similar experiences.
cohort
It is important to be aware of the concept of cohort effects because they can:
be mistaken for age effects.
Informed consent in research contains all of the following, EXCEPT:
detailed hypothesis.
The American Psychological Association (APA) has developed a code of ethics governing research procedures. The guidelines address all of the following issues, EXCEPT:
manipulation.
In an experimental design, the dependent variable:
can change only in response to a change in the independent variable.
Dr. Burial is currently conducting research on sexual orientation. When he gets the participants to sign up, he informs them that they will be looking at a series of pictures to gather information on the appeal of differing clothing combinations. The fact that Dr. Burial is not telling the participants the true purpose of the study indicates that he is using:
deception.
Professor Clifton has designed an experiment to study the effects of caffeine on memory. However, she has informed her participants that she is investigating the taste preferences of caffeine drinks. Professor Clifton has:
used deception, but this is ethically acceptable if it does not harm the participants.
Jean Piaget believed that children:
actively construct their own cognitive as different cognitive abilities develop.
According to the concept of perceptual motor coupling, which of the following statements should be TRUE regarding the motor development of a baby who is born blind?
This baby will be more in-tune with his or her surroundings because she will have to rely on her other sensory systems, and thus her motor skills will develop at a faster rate.
Adjusting to new environmental demands is called:
adaptation.
Schemes are:
actions or mental representations that organize knowledge.
Classifying flowers into groups according to their color is an example of a:
mental scheme.
Adjusting already existing schemes to fit new information and experiences is called:
assimilation.
Two-year-old Anita has learned the word "dog" to identify the family pet Rover. Now Anita says the word "dog" when she sees any animal. Anita has __________ these animals into her existing scheme.
assimilated
Baby Melissa has developed a sucking scheme. She learned that to get food, she must suck on her mother's breast. Now her mother has begun to introduce solid foods with a spoon. Melissa immediately sucks on the spoon. This is an example of:
accommodation.
Jean Piaget's concept of grouping isolated behaviors into a higher-order system is called:
organization.
For cognitive change to occur, these two processes must work in concert as the child experiences considerable movement between the states of cognitive equilibrium and disequilibrium.
assimilation and accommodation
When children experience cognitive conflict in trying to understand the world, they shift from one stage of thought to next. The mechanism through which this shift occurs is called:
equilibration.
Jean Piaget believed that children's thinking in one stage is __________ that in another stage.
qualitatively different from
What makes one stage more advanced than another in Jean Piaget's theory?
the child's new way of understanding the world
Heather crawls from her room into the hallway to look for her mother after she leaves. According to Jean Piaget, this shows that she is capable of:
object permanence.
Renée Baillargeon and her colleagues have found that infants display object permanence as early as age __________ month(s).
3-4
The focusing of mental resources on select information is called:
attention.
Mandy watches as another little girl in the grocery store throws a screaming tantrum to get a toy. The next week at the mall, Mandy begins screaming and crying to get some candy. Mandy is showing:
deferred imitation.
According to the work of Meltzoff, how much time can pass between when an infant observes an action and imitates it?
as long as a few days
Implicit memory is to _________, as explicit memory is to _________.
unconscious; conscious
People remember very little about what happened in their lives before about age:
2 years to 3 years old.
People remember very little about what happened in the early years of their lives. This is called:
infantile amnesia.
Cases such as the "Wild Boy of Aveyron" and "Genie" cause us to wonder whether language is:
infinitely generative.
A form of communication that is based on a system of symbols is called:
language.
Someone with a vocabulary of only 200 words can still recombine the words in different ways to say thousands of different things. This aspect of language is referred to as:
infinite generativity.
Language is made up of:
all of these.
Infants begin to communicate at:
birth.
What is the correct sequence of language development?
crying, cooing, babbling, gestures
At birth, infants communicate through:
crying.
Two-month-old Antonio is listening as his mother sings him a lullaby. He is making a gurgling sound and seems very happy. Antonio is:
cooing.
Kevin loves to say, "Da, da, da, da" over and over again. This is an example of what type of communication?
babbling
Every time Margarita's mother leaves to go to work, Margarita waves to her. Margarita has begun to:
communicate through gestures.
Research about the ability of infants to distinguish human speech sounds indicates that:
infants gradually come to distinguish best the speech sounds of the language spoken around them.
Research on the ability of infants to recognize language sounds indicates that until the age of:
6 months, infants can recognize sounds in all languages.
Infants begin to say their first words between the ages of __________ and __________ months.
10; 15
Which of the following is MOST likely to be a child's first word?
"eat"
Kyoko is 13 months old and can understand about 50 words but can say only about 10 words. Kyoko's __________ vocabulary is more developed than her __________ vocabulary.
receptive; spoken
Infants can __________ language before they can __________ language.
understand; speak
Which of the following is TRUE about a child's receptive vocabulary during the first 2 years of life?
It equals the child's spoken vocabulary.
Jeff has just turned 2 years old. About how many words can he use?
200
Kara is 18 months old. Kyle is 24 months old. Kara is probably able to use about __________ words; Kyle is probably able to speak about __________ words.
50; 200
The rapid increase in an infant's vocabulary starting at about 18 months of age is called:
the vocabulary spurt.
Shalena is 15 months old and just learning to talk. One of her first words was "car." Anytime Shalena sees any type of vehicle, she says "car." This is an example of:
overextension.
Whenever Dakota sees a baseball cap, he says, "hat," but he does not say it when he sees a stocking cap. This is an example of:
underextension.
"Want ice cream," "fall down," and "Mommy give drink" are all examples of:
telegraphic speech.
It is believed that humans acquired language about __________ years ago.
100,000
__________ is an area in the left frontal lobe of the brain that is involved in speech production.
Broca's area
Mariah has brain damage in the left frontal lobe of her brain. When she tries to speak, she struggles to produce words and is unable to say them correctly. Mariah has damage to:
Broca's area.
__________ is an area in the left temporal lobe of the brain that is involved with the comprehension of speech.
Wernike's area
A loss or impairment of language ability caused by brain injury is called:
aphasia.
Noam Chomsky believed that humans are biologically prewired to learn language and are born with an endowment that enables them to detect the rules of language. This endowment is called the:
language acquisition device.
Behaviorists believe that language is:
a series of responses acquired through reinforcement.
A child's expansive vocabulary is directly correlated with his or her parents':
verbal interactions with the child.
Children living in poverty tend to __________ children living in wealthier homes.
speak less than
Child-directed speech is the:
language spoken in a higher pitch than normal with simple words and sentences.
Little Nisha points to a ball and says, "Dat ball." Her father responds with, "What color is the ball?" This is an example of:
recasting.
Damon asks his son to look at a picture book and name the objects he sees. Damon is using __________ to help his son learn language.
labeling
Germain says, "Ball fall." His father replies, "Yes, the ball fell down the stairs." This is an example of:
expanding.
What function does emotional expression, such as crying and smiling, serve in the relationship between a parent and a young infant?
regulation of survival instincts
Which type of smiling occurs as a response to an external stimulus?
social smiling
Fernando is a young child who has just recently begun to smile whenever he hears his mother's voice. Approximately how old is Fernando?
1 to 2 months
At what age do children first show fear when a new person enters their environment?
by 6 months of age
Stranger anxiety is negatively correlated with:
proximity to mother.
A child is most likely to use social referencing in _______ situations.
ambiguous
Children develop the ability to regulate their emotions:
in early infancy.
If an infant is raised in a neglectful environment and is not comforted or soothed during distress, the infant will most likely be delayed in:
expressing positive but not negative emotions.
Caregivers' attempts to help infants soothe their emotions influence:
children's ability to use their caregivers as a social reference later in life.
An infant's ability to inhibit or minimize the intensity of his or her emotions is called:
emotional regulation.
Petria is trying to help her young infant regulate his emotions. She can best do this by:
modeling appropriate emotional regulation.
Infants' ability to regulate their emotions is positively correlated with:
their mothers' intensity of emotion.
Little Katie runs up to her mother and says, "Me scared." Katie is at least:
18 months old
Children with low activity levels and somewhat negative attitudes are classified as:
difficult children.
Kyoko and Jason are going to have a child. Statistically speaking, their child will most likely have a(n) _______ temperament.
easy
With regard to the physiological basis of temperament, Jerome Kagan argues that children inherit a physiology that predisposes them to develop a particular type of temperament. He also believes that:
through experience children learn to modify their temperament.
Which of the following statements about temperament is TRUE?
Temperament tends to be unchangeable during infancy and childhood, but it is more fluid in adulthood when individuals are allowed to choose their own environments.
A goodness of fit occurs when a child's temperament matches:
environmental demands.
What is the main problem with labeling children as difficult?
It can become a self-fulfilling prophecy.
Which of the following would Erik Erikson be most likely to recommend about soothing a crying infant?
Pick up the baby and soothe him or her so that a healthy sense of trust develops.
Miranda developed a basic sense of mistrust during infancy. Her parents bickered a lot and separated, and Miranda was often lost in the shuffle. According to Erik Erikson, Miranda:
will maintain a basic sense of mistrust for the rest of her life.
Researchers have had mothers put a dot of rouge on the noses of babies and place the babies in front of mirrors to see their reaction. These researchers are studying the concept of:
sense of self.
Nine-month-old Tyler is placed in front of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. Tyler will most likely:
touch the spot on the mirror, because he wonders why that other child has a spot on his nose.
Janine impatiently grabs the door handle from her toddler daughter, quickly opens the door, and hurries the little girl through. Erik Erikson would say that Janine's daughter:
will develop a sense of shame and doubt if this type of interaction occurs consistently.
According to Erik Erikson, which of the following is TRUE concerning children and autonomy?
Children develop autonomy first and learn to experience shame and doubt later in life.
What types of behaviors in caregivers create a sense of shame and doubt in children?
overprotectiveness and criticism
Marcos is 16 and eager to graduate from high school and go on to college. He has a clear sense of what he wants for a career and has well-defined values. Which of the following best accounts for Marcos' sense of identity?
He developed autonomy during childhood.
Which of the following is NOT an example of locomotive activity?
a close bond between an infant and a caregiver.
The Harry Harlow (1958) study concluded that contact comfort is more important for attachment than feeding. What evidence was used to support this conclusion?
Baby monkeys spent more time with cloth surrogate mothers than with wire surrogate mothers.
Attachment theorists would agree on which of the following?
Secure attachment to a single primary caregiver is essential for healthy social development.
According to John Bowlby, at what age do infants/children begin to take into consideration the feelings of others before acting?
24 months
According to some research, what might be more important than attachment style in predicting later social functioning?
level of autonomy
Jerome Kagan's views on attachment stress:
the quality of parenting.
A criticism of attachment theory is that:
there are different types of attachment, not just one type.
Beth, who is 6 months old, has a 17-year-old mother who is not sure about how to interact with her. Beth's mother is inconsistent, sometimes responding to Beth's needs and sometimes not responding to her needs. Beth most likely will be a(n) _______ infant.
insecure resistant
A mother hands her baby a rattle, saying, "Here you are." She then gently takes the rattle away, smiling and saying, "Thank you." She does this repeatedly, letting the baby keep the rattle for several seconds each time and encouraging the baby to offer the rattle. Eventually, the baby takes the rattle, holds it for a few seconds, and then holds it out to her mother and smiles. This is an example of:
scaffolding.
Mary often plays the game peek-a-boo with her baby. Initially, Mary covers her baby and then removes the cover, registering "surprise" at the baby's reappearance. After a time, her baby does the covering and uncovering. This is an example of:
object permanence.
The research on fathers as caregivers indicates that fathers:
interact with their babies in different ways than mothers do, regardless of which parent is the primary caregiver.
Which of the following best exemplifies the difference between how mothers and fathers interact with their children?
Mothers smile more at their children.
Which of the following is generally TRUE about child-care settings across the United States, according to your text?
They are generally good in quality.
How do child-care programs for children in low-income families compare with child care available to children in families of higher economic status?
Poor children in child-care programs enjoy better interactions with their teachers but encounter higher teacher-child ratios.
The longitudinal study conducted by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development concluded that:
the home environment is twice as important a predicator of whether children will become attached to their caregivers.
The results of the large National Longitudinal Study of Child Care indicate that:
there is not enough evidence to indicate whether extensive use of day care affects the relationship between parents and children.