84 terms

chapter 8 vocabulary

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Balance of power
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Balkanization
Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities
Bi-national
Of two nations
Boundary
invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory
Centripetal force
A force that causes an object to move in a circle
Centrifugal force
the outward force on a body moving in a curved path around another body
City-state
a city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
Cold War
a state of political conflict using means short of armed warfare
Colonies/colonialism
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Command economy
An economic system in which the government controls a country's economy.
Compact states
the distance from the center to any boundary doesn't vary significantly
Confederal system
an organization of states in which the states keep most of the power
Consequent boundaries
another name for cultural boundaries
Core area
the portion of a country that contains its economic, political, intellectual, and cultural focus.
Core-periphery
Core countries have high levels of development, a capacity at innovation and a convergence of trade flows. Periphery countries usually have less development and are poorer countries.
Cultural boundary
boundaries that mark breaks in the human landscape based on differences in ethnicity
Democratization
the process of creating a government elected by the people
Devolution
the delegation of authority (especially from a central to a regional government)
Disputes: positional, territorial, resource, functional
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Economic force
the effects of supply and demand, and other forms of competitive pressure, on businesses.
Electoral geography
The study of the interactions among space, place, and region and the conduct and results of elections.
Elongated states
states with a long and narrow shape
Enclaves
countries surrounded or almost surrounded by another country.
Exclaves
A bounded (nonisland) piece of territory that is part of a particular state but lies separated from it by the territory of another state.
Ethnic force
where an ethnic group shares a well-developed sense of belonging to the same culture
Ethno nationalization
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European constitution
A European Union document not yet ratified, which incorporates a charter of fundamental rights; merges the judicial, economic, and defense aspects of the EU; establishes the European Council; and raises the number of seats in Parliament, among other things
European Monetary Union
he agreement among the participating member states of the European Union to adopt a single hard currency and monetary system.
European Union
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
Federal System
a government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments
Forward capital
Capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory.
Fragmentation
separating something into fine particles
Fragmented states
consist of two or more territorial unites separated by foreign territory or by water
Frontiers
boundaries
Geometric boundary
Political boundaries that are defined and delimited by straight lines.
Gerrymandering
the drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent
Geopolitics
study of government and its policies as affected by physical geography
Globalization
growth to a global or worldwide scale
Government
(government) the system or form by which a community or other political unit is governed
Heartland theory
Hypothesis proposed by Halford MacKinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world.
Imperialism
any instance of aggressive extension of authority
Institutions
organizations where governmental power is exercised
Integration
the action of incorporating a racial or religious group into a community
Internal Boundaries
Influence how family members communicate with each other
Irredentism
the doctrine that irredenta should be controlled by the country to which they are ethnically or historically related
Landlocked states
state surrounded by other land with no direct outlet to the sea
Market economy
an economy that relies chiefly on market forces to allocate goods and resources and to determine prices
Marketization
recreation of market forces of supply and demand
Median-line principle
lines made to distribute water ways when states are within 200 miles of each other
Microstates
states with very small land areas
Minority/ majority districting
Rearranging districts to allow a minority representative to be elected
Mixed economy
an economic system that combines private and state enterprises
Monetary policy
The management of the money supply and interest rates
Multicore state
A state that possesses more than one core or dominant region, be it economic, political, or cultural.
Nation
a politically organized body of people under a single government
Nation-state
A country who's population share a common identity.
Nationalism
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
OPEC
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
Perforated states
a state that completely surrounds another
Physical boundary
boundary defined by a physical land mark like a river or a lake
Political geography
The spatial analysis of political phenomena and processes.
Political culture
an overall set of values widely shared within a society
Politicization of religion
the use of religious principles to promote political ends and vise versa
Politics
the study of government of states and other political units
Primate city
a city that ranks first in a nation in terms of population and economy
Privatization
To change from government or public ownership or control to private ownership or control.
Prorupted state
A state that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension, leading away from the main territory.
Ratzel, Freidrich
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Relative location
the position of a place in relation to another place
Rimland theory
Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provided the base for world conquest.
Security Council
a permanent council of the United Nations
Separatist movement
refers to the social movements for a particular group of people to separate from a dominant political institution under which they suffer
Shatter belts
an area of instability between regions with opposing political and cultural values
Sovereignty
government free from external control
Spatial force
Spatially, devolutionary events most often occur on the margins of the state.
Stateless nation
a nation without a state (e.g., Kurds, Palestinians, ...).
States
independent political units with territorial boundaries that are internationally recognized by other states
Supranational organization
organization of 3 or more states to promote shared activities.
Territorial morphology
study of states' shapes and their effects
Territoriality
the defense of a bounded physical space against encroachment by other individuals
"third wave" of democratization
systems based on individual freedoms and civil liberities and boasting fairer civic institutions, more active media , objective judiciaries, and stronger property rights
Three pillars
European Union with the authority trade and other economic matters, justice and home affairs and common foreign and security policy
Unitary states
a state in which no other governmental body but the central government has any areas of power that are exclusively under its control.