Chapter 13 Volcanoes

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Volcanoes types and general volcanic information

Lava

Magma that flows onto Earth's surface; the rock that forms when lava cools and solidifies.

Pyroclastic material

Fragments of rock that form during a volcanic eruption.

Shield volcano

Volcanic cones that are broad at the base and have gently sloping sides. This type of volcano covers a wide area and generally forms from quiet eruptions. Layers of hot, mafic lava flow out around the vent, harden, and slowly build up to form the cone.

Cinder cone volcano

A type of volcano that has very steep slopes. The slope angles can be close to 40°, and the slopes are rarely more than a few meters high. This type of volcano form from explosive eruptions and are made of pyroclastic material.

Caldera

A large, circular depression that forms when the magma chamber below a volcano partially empties and causes the ground above to sink.

Hot spot

A volcanically active area of Earth's surface, commonly far from a tectonic plate boundary.

Ring of Fire

One of the Earth's major earthquake zones formed by the subduction of plates along the Pacific coasts of the Americas, Asia, and the islands of the western Pacific Ocean.

Volcano

A vent or fissure in the Earth's surface through which magma and gases are expelled.

viscous

a physical property in which a substance is think and sticky, honey-like.

Volcanism

any activity that includes the movement of magma onto Earth's surface.

Magma

material from the crust or the mantle that has melted or liquid rock found inside Earth's surface.

felsic

a type of magma that is rich in light colored silicate material

mafic

a type of magma that is rich in iron and magnesium; dark in color.

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