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38 terms

McAuley Psychology Ch. 6 Test Review

STUDY
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generalization
the Little Albert Experiment, conducted by John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner, had taught an infant to fear all white and fury objects because of ___
stimulus
feature in the environment that is detected by a person or an animal
conditioning
involves stimulus-response connections
response
observable reaction to a stimulus from a person or an animal
classical conditioning
one stimulus calls forth the response that is usually called forth by another stimulus
classical conditioning
Ivan Pavlov's dog experiment yielded information about ___ ___
conditioned response
a ___ ___ may be extinguished when a conditioned stimulus is no longer followed by an unconditioned stimulus
taste aversion
previously desired foods become repugnant
spontaneous recovery
can occur when the conditioned stimulus starts again
flooding, desensitization, counter
classical conditioning can be applied to learning via ___, systematic ___, and ___conditioning
flooding
exposure to the harmless stimulus until fear responses to that stimulus are extinguished
systematic desensitization
a pleasant, relaxed state associated with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli
counterconditioning
a pleasant stimulus is paired with a fearful one
voluntary
according to operant conditioning, people learn to control ___ responses
operant conditioning
learning is strengthened when behavior is followed by positive reinforcement
reinforcement
the process by which a stimulus increases the chances that the preceding behavior will occur again
operant conditioning
primary and secondary reinforcers are important in ___ ___
primary reinforcers
stimuli such as food and warmth that have value without learning
secondary reinforcers
stimuli that increase the probability of a response because of their association with a primary reinforcer
positive reinforcers
increase the frequency of the behavior they follow when they are applied
positive reinforcers
an effective method for dealing with a misbehaving elementary-school student
negative reinforcers
increase the frequency of the behavior that follows when they are removed
hit, acceptable, running
psychologists say that punishment can be a problem because children can learn to ___, alternative ___ behavior is not taught, and there is a possibility of the child ___ away
schedules of reinforcement
timetable of when and how often the reinforcement occurs
continuous reinforcement
the reinforcement of a behavior every time the behavior occurs
partial reinforcement
only some responses are reinforced
variable-interval schedule
provides reinforcement at any time
variable-ratio schedule
gambling and use of slot machines are effective because they work on a ___-___ ___
shaping
guides behavior toward closer approximations of the desired goal
chaining
each step of a sequence must be learned and must lead to the next until the final action is achieved
programmed learning
B.F. Skinner's teaching machine dealt with ___ ___
shaping, chaining
___ and ___ are utilized in the process of learning to ride a bicycle
latent learning
learning that remains hidden until it is needed
purposeful
cognitive psychologists see learning as ___
reinforcement
E.C. Tolman suggested that ___ is not always necessary for learning
observational learning
learning by observing and modeling the behavior of others
observational learning
media violence may contribute to violent behavior because of ___ ___
active
the PQ4R method is effective because it is based on ___ learning