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the Little Albert Experiment, conducted by John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner, had taught an infant to fear all white and fury objects because of ___


feature in the environment that is detected by a person or an animal


involves stimulus-response connections


observable reaction to a stimulus from a person or an animal

classical conditioning

one stimulus calls forth the response that is usually called forth by another stimulus

classical conditioning

Ivan Pavlov's dog experiment yielded information about ___ ___

conditioned response

a ___ ___ may be extinguished when a conditioned stimulus is no longer followed by an unconditioned stimulus

taste aversion

previously desired foods become repugnant

spontaneous recovery

can occur when the conditioned stimulus starts again

flooding, desensitization, counter

classical conditioning can be applied to learning via ___, systematic ___, and ___conditioning


exposure to the harmless stimulus until fear responses to that stimulus are extinguished

systematic desensitization

a pleasant, relaxed state associated with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli


a pleasant stimulus is paired with a fearful one


according to operant conditioning, people learn to control ___ responses

operant conditioning

learning is strengthened when behavior is followed by positive reinforcement


the process by which a stimulus increases the chances that the preceding behavior will occur again

operant conditioning

primary and secondary reinforcers are important in ___ ___

primary reinforcers

stimuli such as food and warmth that have value without learning

secondary reinforcers

stimuli that increase the probability of a response because of their association with a primary reinforcer

positive reinforcers

increase the frequency of the behavior they follow when they are applied

positive reinforcers

an effective method for dealing with a misbehaving elementary-school student

negative reinforcers

increase the frequency of the behavior that follows when they are removed

hit, acceptable, running

psychologists say that punishment can be a problem because children can learn to ___, alternative ___ behavior is not taught, and there is a possibility of the child ___ away

schedules of reinforcement

timetable of when and how often the reinforcement occurs

continuous reinforcement

the reinforcement of a behavior every time the behavior occurs

partial reinforcement

only some responses are reinforced

variable-interval schedule

provides reinforcement at any time

variable-ratio schedule

gambling and use of slot machines are effective because they work on a ___-___ ___


guides behavior toward closer approximations of the desired goal


each step of a sequence must be learned and must lead to the next until the final action is achieved

programmed learning

B.F. Skinner's teaching machine dealt with ___ ___

shaping, chaining

___ and ___ are utilized in the process of learning to ride a bicycle

latent learning

learning that remains hidden until it is needed


cognitive psychologists see learning as ___


E.C. Tolman suggested that ___ is not always necessary for learning

observational learning

learning by observing and modeling the behavior of others

observational learning

media violence may contribute to violent behavior because of ___ ___


the PQ4R method is effective because it is based on ___ learning

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