a process of learning in which behavior that leads to satisfying consequences is likely to be repeated
observational learning / vicarious learning
a type of learning in which a person learns new information and behaviors by observing the behaviors of others.
behaviorist; mental illness is learned through the pairing of a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus resulting in a conditioned response; treatment- exposure therapy
Freud & Jung: based on belief that a person's behavior is determined largely by unconscious influences on behavior; belief in underlying needs, desires, impulses; belief in the psychosexual stages; catharsis
reality principle; seeks gratification but guides us to know when we can & cannot express our wishes; ego defense mechanisms protect us from anxiety
psychosexual stages of development
Oral: 0 - 18 months
Anal: 18 months - 3 years
Phallic: 3 - 5 years
Latency: 5 - 12 years
Genital: 12 - adulthood
Rogers & Maslow: emerged in the 1960s; emphasis on people as friendly, cooperative, & constructive, focus on drive to self actualization; emphasizes free will; believed that people are innately good.
emphasis on self determination, choice, and individual responsibility; focuses on authenticity
Roger's Humanistic Theory
believes in the basic human need for unconditional positive regard; believed in client centered theory; the therapist does not criticize but gives unconditional support; Very little research to support that it works
mental illness is caused by mental processes including maladaptive thoughts, perceptions, & memory; difficulty problem solving; believed that if he could change the way that the person thought then he could change the way that the person behaved
Maslow; humanists further suggest that self actualization leads naturally to a concern for the welfare of others & to behavior that is loving, courageous, spontaneous, & independent; process by which people fulfill their potential for goodness & growth
all forms of therapy have 3 essential features?
sufferer, healer, series of contacts b/t healer & sufferer
a behavioral treatment in which clients with phobias gradually learn to react calmly instead of with intense fear of objects they dread is known as:
according to aaron becks cognitive theory, one illogical thought process regularly found in depression is _________, the drawing of broad negative conclusions on the basis of a single insignificant event.
according to freud, _______ is a condition in which the id, ego, and superego do not mature properly and are frozen at an early stage of development.
according to freud, the ____ is the psychological force that represents a persons conscience.
according to the ______ model, human beings are driven to self-actualize, or to fulfill their natural potential for goodness & growth.
albert bandura argued that in order to feel happy & function effectively, people must develop a positive sense of:
the paradigm or model adopted by people in the middle ages to explain abnormal behavior would have been
abnormal behaviors- indeed, all behaviors- are acquired through learning." which model of abnormality does this quote most closely represent
the basic premise of family therapy is
the entire family is viewed as the unit of treatment, even if only one of the members, receives a clinical diagnosis
the example of a young boy developing a fear of sand because there is a sandbox in the yard where a dog barks & lunges demonstrates a principle of
the model of abnormality that focuses on the role of values & choices in behavior is the
humanistic - existential model
three types of biological treatments used today
drug therapy, psychosurgery, electroconvulsive therapy
which model of abnormality rests on the deterministic assumption that no symptom or behavior is accidental and that all behavior is determined by past experiences?
the psychodynamic model
if a person had an anxiety disorder, one would suspect a problem with which of these neurotransmitters?