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Marbury v. Madison

asserts the power of judicial review

Dred Scott v. Sandford

reflects dual federalism; slaves could not be taken away without due process;

Gibbons v. Ogden

asserts Congressional control over interstate commerce

Plessy v. Ferguson

"separate but equal"

McCulloch v. Maryland

necessary and proper clause allowed the creation of the US Bank; "the power to tax involves the power to destroy"

US v. Nixon

executive privilege did not apply with the Watergate Tapes

1st Amendment

freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly

2nd Amendment

right to keep and bare arms

3rd Amendment

no quartering of troops

4th Amendment

no illegal search and seizure

5th Amendment

eminent domain, double jeopardy, due process, self incrimination

6th Amendment

right to a fair and speedy trial

7th Amendment

right to a jury of your peers

8th Amendment

no cruel and unusual punishment

10th Amendment

reserved powers of the states

12th Amendment

election of the president; presidential ticket; electoral college

14th Amendment

equal protection under the law; due process

17th Amendment

direct election of senators

20th Amendment

lame duck; January 20th begins presidency

22nd Amendment

2 terms; 10 years total for the presidency

25th Amendment

presidential succession and disability

26th Amendment



limited government ensures order, competitive markets, personal opportunity


belief in the positive uses of government to bring about justice and equality of opportunity


checks and balances; separation of powers; federalism; rule of law; due process; bill of rights


economic and governmental system based on public ownership of the means of production and exchange


constitutional arrangment...division of power between national, state, local government


2-House legislature

judicial activism

judges interpret the Constitution to reflect current conditions and values (Sotomayor)


sharply limited government, individual liberty, free market economy

Article I

The Legislative Branch; Congress

Article II

The Executive Branch; the President

Article III

The Judiciary

Article IV

Full Faith and Credit Clause

Article V

Amending the Constitution

Article VI

The Supremacy Clause

Article VII

Ratification of the Constitution

Article I, Section 8

enumerated powers of Congress

Elastic Clause

Necessary and proper clause (implied powers)

Concurrent powers

Those shared by the national and state governments

Reserved powers

Those powers not mentioned in the Constitution are reserved for the states; 10th Amendment

Federalist #10

factions; need for a Republican form of government

Federalist #51

separation of powers/checks and balances


35 years old, natural born citizen, 14 years residency prior to running for office


30 years old, 9 year citizen, 6 year term


25 years old, 7 year citizen, 2 year term


president's salary


number of representatives (districts) in CA


# of electoral votes needed to win presidential election


least number of electoral votes a state can have

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