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Terms in this set (29)
ABCs of Attitude
Affect (feelings), Behavior (intentions), Cognition (beliefs)
an evaluation, either positive or negative, of a person, object, idea, event, etc., that is manifested in our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors toward the object
We are happy as long as there is equilibrium. Triangle relationship. Me with vegetables and health. People try to maintain balance among their beliefs, cognitions, and sentiments).
Unpleasant state of arousal when we are unbalanced. Primarily a theory of attitude change. Festinger: holding two or more inconsistent cognitions. Aronson: performing and action that is discrepant from ones customary, typically positive self-conception.
Asking someone for a very large favor that he or she will certainly refuse and then following that request with one for a smaller favor (which tends to be seen as a concession that the target will feel compelled to honor)
A person's conscious views toward people, objects or concepts. That is, the person is aware of the feelings he or she holds in a certain context.
Reason or explanation that resides outside the individual. (Texting and driving is bad only because it will cause a ticket).
A compliance technique in which a person makes an initial small request with which nearly everyone complies, followed by a larger request involving the real behavior of interest
Immediate evaluative reactions that people may not be conscious of, or that may conflict with their consciously endorsed attitudes
Reduction of dissonance by internally justifying ones behavior when the external justification is insufficient
An external incentive like a reward, decreases a person's intrinsic motivation to perform a particular task.
State of psychological dissonance that often occurs after making an important decision
Inconsistency feels foolish. Restoring self-image eliminates attitude change. Maintaining self-esteem is key.
People come to know their own attitudes by looking at their behavior and the context in which it occurred and inferring what their attitudes must be
People like consistent people
Spreading of Alternatives
A common way to reduce dissonance is to increase the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and to decrease the attractiveness of the rejected alternative.
Theory of Reasoned Action
Attitude + Norm -> Intention -> Behavior
What are the three main components of attitudes?
Affect (how much people like or dislike an object), Behavior (behavioral tendency to approach or avoid), Cognition (thoughts that typically reinforce a person's feelings)
How are attitudes formed and accessed?
Attitudes are stored in memory and do not depend on momentary knowledge or beliefs. Attitudes are constructed "on-line" based on accessible information and feelings. Attitudes are influenced by both memory and current influences; stability depends on accessibility of information over time.
Why do we have attitudes?
Knowledge function, value-expressive (ego) function, utilitarian (instrumental) function
Do attitudes predict behavior?
Only in specific situations. Attitudes sometimes conflict with other powerful determinants of behavior, such as an individual's understanding of the prevailing norms of appropriate behavior.
Why did the early attitude work (LaPiere and Wicker) tell us about attitude-behavior consistency?
Attitudes do not predict behavior very well. (LaPiere: people said they would not serve orientals, but they still did at restaurants).
Why might attitudes not predict behavior?
Instability of intentions: change from measurement to behavior. Intention-behavior incompatibility. Multi-dimensionality of attitudes. Little or no variance in attitude or behavior. Literal inconsistency- acting out of line with attitude.
When do attitudes predict behavior?
1. When attention is focused on the attitude. 2. When the attitude is formed by active experience. 3. When the attitude is personally relevant. 4. When the cognitive and affective components of attitude match. (Cognitive: is it dangerous? Affective: am I afraid? Behavior: do I run away?) 5. When appropriate measures are used. 6. When we assess a "true" attitude rather than social desirability.
What are the necessary conditions for attitude change due to dissonance?
Effort Justification: people's tendency to reduce dissonance by justifying the time, effort, or money they have devoted to something that has turned out to be unpleasant or disappointing.
Induced (forced) Compliance: subtly compelling individuals to behave in a manner that is inconsistent with their beliefs, attitudes, or values, in order to elicit dissonance-- and therefore a change in their original attitudes or values.
What are the major differences between self-perception theory and cognitive dissonance?
Both influence people's attitudes and broader views of themselves. Dissonance Reduction processes are activated when people's behavior is inconsistent with pre-existing attitudes that are clear-cut and of some importance. Self-Perception processes are invoked when behavior "clashes" with attitudes that are relatively vague or of little import.
Where do attitudes come from?
Personal experience, social learning, genetic factors
How do we reduce dissonance?
1. Change the behavior. 2. Change the cognition. 3. Add new cognitions that justify the behavior.
How do we justify our actions?
External Justification: reason or explanation that resides outside the individual. Internal Justification: restore balance by changing something about oneself. Insufficient Justification: reduction of dissonance by internally justifying ones behavior when the external justification is insufficient.
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