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Psychology of Personality Test 3
Terms in this set (22)
Describe Rogers' familial and educational backgrounds and how these may have influenced his theory.
He grew up on an Illinois farm in a conservative, Christian home in the early 1900s - could have influenced his positive perspective on people and their potentials
Studied agriculture, theology, education, and psychology - may have influenced him to make therapy available to the everyday, non therapist and why he focused on teaching others the basic skills to be effective helpers
Describe what Rogers means by humanism; phenomenology; authenticity; self; ideal self; experience (or organism); self-actualization; congruence; incongruence and the origin of incongruence (how incongruence develops). (This is a broad overview question!)
Humanism - People are positive and worthy of respect; their conscious sense of the world can be trusted
Phenomenology - Study of your conscious perception of the world (like Freud's ego)
Authenticity - Living in accordance with your experience (or organism) and not anybody else's view of you
Self - The self-concept; your perception of yourself
Ideal self - The self you most want to be
Experience (or organism) - The naturally experiencing person; your gut instincts
Self-actualization - Our basic drive toward growth and wholeness; we seek growth and "tension" (unlike Freud)
Congruence - Our drive for consistency between our self and ideal self, but more importantly between our self and experience
Incongruence - The lack of consistency between our self and ideal self, or self and experience; this conflict produces anxiety
The origin of incongruence (how it develops) - When parents provide only "conditions of worth" (affirmation only when you conform to their ideals), we cannot live according to our deep, natural "organism experience" but instead must deny it. We must wear a "mask" or inauthentic self derived from our parent's view of us because it would be too threatening not to conform to their image - we would risk rejection. We come to distrust our experience.
Compare and contrast Freud and Rogers in the following areas (see handout):
A. View of persons and Structure of personality.
Freud saw people negatively, and as products of unconscious forces (sex and aggression) based on evolutionary principles; the power of conscious processes (the ego) is minimized
Rogers had a positive view of human beings; by nature humans are growth-seeking; conscious perceptions and processes are important and considered generally trustworthy
- Freud structured personality as the Id (unconscious drives toward sex and aggression), the Ego (conscious reality), and the Superego (morality and conscience)
- Rogers structured the personality as the Self (i.e. the Self Concept), the Ideal Self (like Freud's Ego and Superego), and the naturally experiencing Organism (like Freud's Id but positive)
Compare and contrast Freud and Rogers:
B. Process (motives). Must the motives theorized by Freud and Rogers be in conflict with each other? Explain your answer.
Freud said that motives are based on TENSION REDUCTION through the expression of sexual and aggressive drives.
Rogers said that motives are TENSION SEEKING and include self-actualization (realizing the wholeness and potential of the person) and congruence (consistency) between Self and Experience and the Self and Ideal Self
These two theories are in conflict with one another; Freud's motives delineate humans as seeking base, animalistic needs while Rogers' motives delineate humans as seeking something higher than animalistic needs
Compare and contrast Freud and Rogers:
C. Developmental issues and approaches.
Freud: Psychosexual development was concentrated in the first 5-6 years of life. Freud was very detailed about stages (oral, anal, phallic) and conflicts.
Rogers also focused on early childhood, though he did not hypothesize specific developmental stages. Rogers focuses upon the development of the self and the importance of learning to trust one's organism. Healthy development primarily depends upon the parents providing empathy, genuineness, and unconditional positive regard.
Compare and contrast Freud and Rogers:
D. Pathology. Specifically, describe the conflict models of each and how defenses come into play.
Freud: Conflict model focusing on defenses, anxiety, symptoms, and fixation in stages. Freud emphasizes the conflict between id and superego and between id and ego.
Rogers: Also a conflict model focusing on conflict (incongruence) between the Self and Experience and Self and Ideal Self. Incongruence is caused when parental conditions of worth (conditional worth and acceptance) do not allow the self to develop in accordance with the person's organismic experience and potential. Subception is the process of the recognition of conflict between one's self and experiences and the utilization of defenses such as denial and distortion, as well as other defenses that are basically consistent with Freud's defenses.
Compare and contrast Freud and Rogers:
E. Counseling approaches and the rationale behind them.
Freud: Tapped the unconscious through the use of ambiguous stimuli (Rorschach Inkblot and Thematic Apperception Test).
Rogers: Trusted the person's conscious perceptions, thus the techniques that flowed from his approach tap conscious perceptions of the self (Q-sort, Semantic Differential, Adjective Checklist).
How do assessment approaches differ between psychodynamic and phenomenological theorists? Explain the reason for the difference.
- Freud's purpose was to make the unconscious conscious and to allow the Ego greater awareness and control through the use of psychoanalysis (dream interpretation, free association, interpretation of symptoms, interpretation of transference). To be a successful psychoanalyst required years of specialized training and personal analysis.
- Rogers: Through providing the therapeutic conditions of empathy, genuineness, and unconditional positive regard, the client will naturally become aware of and express his direct experience that may be in conflict with the self concept due to parental conditions of worth. The provision of these therapeutic conditions was both necessary and sufficient to allow change to occur. Interpretation, advice, and behavioral strategies were not necessary because it was assumed that the person's own growth tendencies and experiences were better guides to health than those of an outside therapist (the person can be trusted!). Lay persons could be trained to provide therapeutic conditions, thus individuals in businesses, schools, churches, and other groups could be taught to provide basic counseling for everyday problems.
*Key difference between Rogerian tests and psychodynamic ones is that they assess the conscious self concept, not the unconscious.
Describe three ways to measure the self-concept: Q-sort, adjective checklist, and semantic differential.
- Place statements/cards about the self in 7 piles ranging from "not at all like me" to "a lot like me."
- Rate your traits on a continuum - check the level that fits
- Check characteristics from a list that are like you
Describe three examples of the research supporting Rogers' ideas of self consistency and congruence (p. 179-82). You are basically on your own for this one.
*Chodorkoff (1954) found that subjects were slower to perceive words that were personally threatening than they were to perceive neutral words. This tendency was particularly characteristic of defensive, poorly adjusted individuals. Poorly adjusted individuals, in particular, attempt to deny awareness to threatening stimuli.
*Cartwright (1956) did a study of self-consistency as a factor affecting immediate recall. He hypothesized, in accordance with Rogers's theory, that individuals would show better recall for stimuli that are consistent with the self than for stimuli that are inconsistent. He hypothesized further that this tendency would be greater for maladjusted subjects than for well-adjsuted subjects. True to his hypothesis, subjects were able to recall adjectives they felt were descriptive of themselves better than they were able to recall adjectives they felt were most unlike themselves.
*A study was conducted to determine the ability of subjects to recall adjectives used by others to describe them (1962). Accuracy of recall was best for adjectives used by others that were consistent with the self-concept of subjects and was poorest for adjectives used by others that were inconsistent with the self-concept. In sum, the accuracy of recall of self-related stimuli appears to be a function of the degree to which the stimuli are consistent with the self-concept.
Explain the subception process and how the defense system works to keep conflict from awareness (note Rogers' defenses in your answer).
Subception is the defense system that recognizes information that is incongruent with the self and "calls out the defenses":
- Distortion (incongruent information is modified to be congruent with the self
- Denial (incongruent information is flat out denied)
Explain the work of Coopersmith in his study of self esteem (the three key components, 186).
Further supported the importance of the dimensions suggested by Rogers. Coopersmith define self-esteem as the evaluation an individual typically makes with regard to self. Self-esteem, then, is an enduring personal judgment of worthiness, not a momentary good or bad feeling resulting from a particular situation.
- Origins of self-esteem (interpersonal conditions of the home and the immediate environment; reflected appraisal in which they used opinions of themselves that were expressed by others as a basis for their own self-judgments)
3 particularly influential parental attitudes and behaviors important to the formation of self-esteem:
(1.) The degree of acceptance, interest, affection, and warmth expressed by parents toward the child.
(2.) Permissiveness and punishment - good parents had clear rules that were enforced, but typically used rewards as incentives rather than punishments
(3.) Whether parent-child relations were democratic or dictatorial - good parents had enforced rules for conduct, yet still treated children fairly within those bounds and recognized the rights and opinions of the child
Be very clear about what Rogers means by the "self-experience discrepancy."
Also called incongruence; when what you naturally feel inside (your organismic experience) is not consistent with what you (or your parents) are convincing yourself to be
What does Rogers say is the responsibility of the therapist? Why must the therapist take this approach? What are the necessary conditions for change?
The responsibility of the therapist is to provide the unconditional positive regard the person did not receive from parents in childhood.
The therapist must do this so that the person learns to trust his or her inner experience and feelings and live according to them (not according to the mask or false self concept) and eliminate their incongruence.
The only thing necessary for change is therapeutic conditions (unconditional positive regard, warmth, empathy, genuineness, etc.).
Describe the significance of the work of Maslow. (p. 206)
- Bridges the gap between Freud's biological needs theory and Rogers' need for self actualization
- He suggested a view of human motivation that distinguishes between such biological needs as hunger, sleep, and thirst and such psychological needs as self-esteem, affection, and belonging. One can't meet the psychological needs without the basic biological needs being met - thus Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.
- Reasoned that, to learn more about personality, we shouldn't just study everyday normal people or breakdowns in normal functioning that result in psychopathology - we should study abnormally high-functioning, self-actualizing people (Abraham Lincoln, Albert Einstein, Eleanor Roosevelt, etc.)
Describe the updated research on the self, including multiple selves; cultural differences concerning the familial self (eastern vs. western cultures); Cushman's ideas about how the concept of self has changed in America over the past century; and should/ought selves.
Multiple selves - Our sense of self and our self-presentation change with different contexts.
Cultural differences concerning the familial self - In Eastern cultures, a familial self can be more important than the individualized self, but in western culture, particularly America, we are very individualized and independent
Cushman's ideas about how the concept of self has change din America over the past century - Cushman says that America has changed from the conception of self as inner character (your values, feelings, beliefs) to self as public perception (what you look like, what you have, how others see you)
Should/Ought selves - I "should" or "ought" do something; the term alone influences how we feel about the subject
Describe what is meant by Existentialism.
A philosophical theory or approach that emphasizes the existence of the individual person as a free and responsible agent determining their own development through acts of the will.
- We exist as free individuals
- We are aware that we exist
- We are aware that we will die
- We must authentically confront this inherent anxiety and create meaning in our lives
Describe what is meant by Brahman, Atman, and the "Self."
Brahman - the one true God
Atman - the true self or essence of the human beyond the superficial identification with external experiences (Maya)
Self - is thus God within us, and ultimately our deepest nature is God (not what Rogers meant!)
Describe the 4 personality types (typology) or the 4 paths to God.
*Jnana (knowledge, discernment)
*Bhakti (love, relationship, feeling)
*Karma (work, service)
*Raja (psychophysical exercise/meditation)
Describe the basic layers/levels of personality from the Hindu perspective (the powerpoint noted 5 of these).
*The Physical Body
- Persona/mask or social roles (the persona is necessary but is temporary; it is not our eternal essence)
*Conscious Layer of the Mind
- Personal history
- Atman; Self - "the beyond that is within"
Describe the deepest level of personality according to Freud, Rogers, and Hinduism.
Freud: The Id, your biological unconscious that houses the drive for sex and aggression
Rogers: The experience or organism, your gut feelings and instincts that are positive as they incite you to self-actualization or wholeness, growth, and completeness
Hinduism: Being Itself, connecting with the spiritual manifestation of God within you; goes the deepest of all these theories
Know the terms in the book (Chapters 5 and 6).
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