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Nutrition - Exam 1 Review Questions

Nutrition: An Applied Approach Exam 1 Review Questions
STUDY
PLAY
inorganic nutrients that are not broken down by the human body or destroyed by heat or light are called:
minerals
what is the primary source of fuel for the brain?
carbohydrates
the BRSS is the government
survey that tracks lifestyle habits that increase risks for developing chronic diseases
according to the AMDR, what % of your daily calories should be provided by carbohydrates?
45-65%
"wellness" is a multidimensional process that includes one's physical, emotion, social, occupational, and spiritual health
true
nutrition is a relatively new scientific discipline: true or false
true
A "drink" is defined as the amount of a beverage that provides ____ fluid ounce of pure alcohol
.5
the need to drink larger and larger amounts of alcohol to get the equivalent pleasurable sensations associated with alcohol intake is referred to as:
tolerance
if someone passes out after a night of hard drinking, he or she should be left alone to "sleep it off"
false
the four characteristics of a healthful diet are adequacy, balance, moderation, and ____
variety
which of the following foods is exempt from standard food labeling regulations:

a. grains
b. processed foods
c. meat
d. organic foods
c
the Dietary Guidelines for Americans follows a standardized definition of a serving side for each food: true or false
false
note: which of the following is a good food safety practice to employ when consuming or cooking eggs?

answer: casseroles made with eggs should reach an internal temperature of 160º F before being eaten
...
note: which of the following is a FALSE statement regarding the proper refrigeration and freezing of food?

answer: thaw frozen meat and poultry on the kitchen counter
...
name an antioxidant added to food as a preservative:
vitamin C
it's unsafe to thaw frozen chicken on the counter: true or false
true
microwave cooking kills all the bacteria present in food: true or false
false
the most common nutritional definition worldwide is ____
iron
in the US food insecurity is caused by the lack of enough food produced to feed all the people who live in poverty: true or false
false
which types of fats should be included in a healthful diet?
mono and polyunsaturated fats
note: challenges to healthy eating when dining out include all of the following except: limited choice
...
many of the general nutrient recommendations that we often see are based up ____ calorie diet
2,000
vitamin C and B are termed:
water-soluble vitamins
Lauren's friend has recommended that she take a vitamin C supplement before undergoing oral surgery. Lauren is concerned about consuming too much of the supplement. which of the following nutrient standards would assist Lauren in determine the highest amount of the supplement that would be safe for her to consume?

a. EER
b. UI
c. AMDR
d. RDI
b
note: double-bind, placebo-controlled, random-selected
...
note: which of the following BEST describes minerals:

answer: inorganic micronutrients found in a variety of foods
...
the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are dietary standards that should be applied only to healthy individuals: true or false
true
protein is the only macronutrient that contains the element nitrogen: true or false
true
moderate alcohol intake is defined as two days/day for men and ____ drink/s per day for women
1
for males, binge drinking is defined as consuming ____ or more alcoholic drinks on one occasion within a short period of time; for females, binge drinking is defined as consuming 5 or more alcoholic drinks on one occasion within a short period of time
5
the information provided on a food label that identifies how much a serving of food contributes to your intake of nutrients based on a 2,000 calorie a day diet is called the:
% daily value
one of the limitations to MyPyramid is that the portion recommendations may not be equal to the common serving sizes identified on food labels: true or false
true
why is rBGH given to many US dairy cows?
to increase milk production without increasing feed (or to increase muscle while decreasing fat)
Hepatitis A is a food-borne virus that can result in ____ damage
liver
all additives are synthetic: true or false
false
foods of plant origin are the most common sources of food-borne illness: true or false
false
crops grown to be exported to other countries and not for local consumption are called ____ crops
cash
transgenic crops are also known as GMOs (genetically modified organisms): true or false
true
which nutrient would be lacking from your diet if you don't eat vegetables such as carrots, leafy greens, sweet potatoes, and squash?
vitamin A
note: safety issues associated with cooking in residence halls include all of the following except:

answer: having 2 refrigerators in the same room
...
which of the following is an inorganic nutrient?

a. Vitamin A
b. Carbohydrates
c. Lipids
d. Calcium
d
a slice of pumpkin bread contains 5 grams of fat, 40 grams or carbohydrates, and 5 grams of protein. what % of the bread's calories are from fat?
20%
poor nutrition is strongly associated with three chronic diseases that are among the top 10 causes of death in the US: true or false
true
because water does not provide any calories to the body, scientists do not consider it a nutrient: true or false
false
complete avoidance of all alcoholic beverages is the only way for most people who abuse alcohol to achieve full and ongoing recovery: true or false
true
why are there several ethnic variations on MyPyramid?
to allow for culturally and ethnically different food choices
Jack is a college athlete who requires 2,800 kilocalories a day to support his total energy needs. even though Jack likes many different foods and makes it a point to try new things, he consumes only approximately 1,600 kilocalories a day. which of the characteristics of a healthy diet is Jack missing?
adequacy
Food companies are prohibited from using nutrient or health claims in food labels that are not approved by the FDA
true
the US Department of Agriculture regulates ____ farming standards in the US
organic
the easiest and most effective way to prevent food-borne illness is:
wash hands before handling food
a process that uses gamma rays to eliminate harmful bacteria in meat and poultry is called ____
irradiation
food intoxications result from consuming foods in which microbes have secreted poisonous toxins: true or false
true
all preservatives must be listed on the label: true or false
true
food ____ is a situation in which people are unable to obtain enough food to meet their daily physical needs
insecurity
there is very little a single individual can do to solve the problem of undernutrition and hunger in the world today: true or false
false
what nutrient would be lacking from your diet if you didn't eat milk, cheese, soy milk, tofu, yogurt or spinach?
calcium
note: all of the following as symptoms/side effects of ketosis EXCEPT:

answer: high blood cholesterol
...
an important source of energy for muscles during times of rest and low-intesity exercise is:
fat
overconsumption of ____ has the greatest potential for toxicity
vitamin D
note: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collected dietary information of Americans by using a/n:

answer: personal interview that collects information from a 24-hour diet recall
...
protein's primary role is to provide energy for the body: true or false
false
vitamins provide 4 kilocalories per gram: true or false
false
women absorb a greater percentage of a given alcohol intake as compared to men of the same size: true or false
true
Juanita doesn't care for meat and poultry and restricts her intake of animal foods to only milk and yogurt sources. which dietary guideline is Julie failing to practice?
balance
the FDA regulates nutrition labels and the description of information found on food packages: true or false
true
according to the Centers for Disease Control, the majority of food infections are caused by:
microorganisms
give an example of a neurotoxin:
clostridium botulinum
note: which statement is FALSE about fungi causing adverse food reactions?

answer: many species of fungi can cause serious illness in otherwise healthy people
...
fungi are rarely associated with food infections: true or false
true
flavoring agents and colorings are derived from both natural and synthetic sources: true or false
true
the World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that by 2020, deaths due to diabetes will increase worldwide by more than ____ percent
50
the type of undernutrition that affects toddlers who have recently been weaned from breast milk and oven a diet that is severely lacking in protein is:
protein deficit malnutrition
the number of people suffering from hunger worldwide is decreasing: true or false
false
name a fruit/vegetable that is only at its peak in the summer
tomato
the ____ is the leading federal agency int he US that protects human health and safety
CDC
a double-blind experiment is one in which neither the researchers not participants know which group is assigned to which treatment: true or false
true
macronutrients are nutrients that contain the element nitrogen: true or false
false
8 ounces (1 cup) of beer is equivalent to 1 drink: true or false
false
the government agency that regulates food labeling the US is the:
FDA
the recommendations presented in USDA Food Guide separate high-fat and high-calorie food choices from low-fat and low-calorie alternatives
false
note: which of the following is NOT an antioxidant used in the processing of food:

answer: propionic acid
...
the antibiotic-resistant bacteria that is thought to result from the use of antibiotics in animals is:
MRSA (methacillen-resistent staphylococcus aureus)
temperature danger zone for bacterial growth?
40-140
clostridium botulinum thrives in an acidic environment: true or false
false
sulfites have been banned by the FDA and are no longer found in the US food supply: true or false
false
the lack of which nutrient in the diet can lead to night blindness in children?
vitamin A
individuals who live in poverty are sermon obese: true or false
false
what nutrient would be lacking from your diet if you didn't eat lentils, fruits, vegetables, or whole grains?
fiber
the type of study that compares a group of individuals with a disease to another similar but healthy group is called a(n):
case control study
the group oven a specific treatment or intervention during an experiment is called the ____ group
experimental
a beverage that contains 20 grams of alcohol mixed with a diet soda has approximately 140 kilocalories: true or false
true
alcohol provides ____ kilocalories per gram and has no appreciable nutritional value
7
women who are breastfeeding should abstain from alcohol as it easily passes into the breast milk at levels equal to blood alcohol concentrations: true or false
true
servings in the USDA Food Guide are represented in:
ounce-equivalents
the Dietary Guidelines are a set of principles designed but the WHO for all developing and developed countries: true or false
false
it's estimated that over ____ % of the US population has symptoms of food-borne illness without knowing or reporting it
50
bacteria causes the majority of food infections: true or false
true
a child who is shorter than his or her expected height for age is suffering from:
stunting
the USDA is responsible for the ____ of foods and surplus commodity foods during an emergency
distribution
worldwide, the majority of deaths seen in undernourished children are due to infection: true or false
true
how are foods listed on an ingredient list?
by weight used in the food from most to least
note: taking charge of your fast food and restaurant experiences include all of the following except:

answer: not eating out
...
fats are soluble in water: true or false
false
Alzheimer's disease is strongly associated with dietary choices: true or false
false
which nutrient contains nitrogen?
protein
which dietary standard, expressed as percentages of total energy, defines the recommended intake range for the macronutrients?
AMDR (acceptable macronutrient distribution range)
minerals contain a chemical structure that cannot be broken down during digestion: true or false
true
MyPyramid recommends that all grain sources be whole grain: true or false
false
mycotoxins are most commonly found in:
grains and peanuts
monosodium glutamate, iodine added to table salt, and calcium added to orange juice are all examples of:
additives
organically grown foods are more nutritious than conventionally grown foods: true or false
false
to avoid consuming mercury, pregnant and breastfeeding women and young children are advised to avoid large predatory fish: true or false
true
note: suggestions for healthy eating in the dining hall include all of the following except:

answer: eat meals at the same time everyday
...
in the body, the major storage sites for glycogen are the muscles and:
liver
for dinner, Carol consumes 250 grams of carbs, 50 grams of protein, and 30 grams of fat. in addition, Carol decides that she wants a glass of wine with her meal. if she drinks one glass of wine containing 10 grams of alcohol, how many total kilocalories does she consume in this meal?
1,540 kilocalories
all nutrients are divided into ____ classes
6
irregular breathing, cold and clammy skin, and loss of consciousness are all signs of:
alcohol poisoning
the proper steps developed for canning foods ensures that all endospores of ____ ____ are eliminated when followed carefully
clostridium botulinum
which natural preservation method doesn't limit spoilage by drawing water out of foods (thereby making them inhospitable to bacterial growth)?
cooling
the safety of raw seafood cannot be guaranteed; it should always be cooked to reduce the risk of food borne illness: true
true
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a serious condition that is associated with physical birth defects and mental retardation: true or false
true
diets high in sugar/starch are directly associated with:
tooth decay
since 1990, food labels have been required on all fresh meat and poultry: true or false
false
the primary method used to preserve Parma ham is by adding ____
salt
pasteurization was first developed to kill microorganisms in ____
wine
the original objective in the development of GMOs was to:
increase crop protection from pesticides and herbicides
organic farmers cannot use pesticides: true or false
false
vitamin C and the B vitamins are termed:
water-soluble vitamins
the building blocks of proteins are called:
amino acids
your grandmother has recently been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. which of the following professionals is most likely to be qualified to offer your grandmother assistance in planning her diabetic diet?
registered dietitian (RD)
cryogenics is a new area of research that seeks to uncover the links between our genes, our environment and our diet: true or false
false
milk is a good source of calcium but a poor source of iron; meat is a good source of iron but a poor source of calcium. individuals who eat from both of these food groups are incorporating what characteristic of a healthy diet into their meal plan?
balance
a low amount of humidity can affect the survival and reproduction of food microorganisms: true or false
false
1/2 of your plate should be:
fruits and vegetables
name a monosaccharide
galactose
note: which of the following describes vitamins A, D, E and K?

answer: potentially toxic
...
the ___ is the standard used to estimate the daily nutrient needs of half of all healthy individuals
EAR (estimated average requirement)
the macronutrients include carbohydrates, lipids and proteins: true or false
true
on average, a healthy individual can metabolize the equivalent of ____ drink/s per hour
1
the ____ is the primary site of alcohol metabolism in the body
liver
there is no single dietary modification plan appropriate for all individuals: true or false
true
two types of fungi are:
molds and yeasts
note: foods of animal origin are the most commonly associated with food-borne illnesses
...
in developed countries, the major cause of malnutrition is:
the unequal distribution of available food
death in infants who suffer from malnutrition is usually the result of:
decreased resistance to infectious diseases
in order to ensure adequate fiber intake you should make ____ your grains whole grains
1/2
what item best represents, in terms of size, a single serving a meat?
a deck of cards
the term nutritionist has no definition or laws regulating it: true or false
true
moderate alcohol consumption increases "good" (HDL) cholesterol and lowers "bad" (LDL) cholesterol: true or false
true
Suzie is a stay-at-home mom who generally prepares the majority of meals for her household. even though she always prepares meals that offer enough calories and nutrients for her family of 4, she tends to make the same meals repeatedly. which one of the characteristics of a healthy diet is Suzie not incorporating into her meal planning?
variety
the last item on an ingredient list is the predominant ingredient in that food: true or false
false
note: pesticides are:

answers: chemicals used in the field and in storage areas to decrease destruction caused by insects and fungus
...
a shift in dietary patterns from lack of food to a high energy intake resulting in the development of chronic disease is called the nutrition ____
transition
note: HIV and AIDS can be transmitted via breast milk to the infant
...
one serving of french fries from a fast food restaurant is packaged as:

a. small
b. medium
c. large
d. extra large
a
the term "enriched" on a food label signifies that:
the nutrients in the food were lost during processing and then added back in