Understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context.
The group of memberships that people have because of their location in history and society.
Marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production.
The degree to which members of a group or a society feel united by shared values and other social bonds also known as social cohesion.
The use of sociology to solve problems-- from the micro level of family relationships to the macro level of global pollution
A statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work; an explanation of how two or more facts are related to one another.
A theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another.
A theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of various parts, each with a function that, when fulfilled, contributes to society's equilibrium; also known as functionalism and structural functionalism
A theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of groups that are competing for scarce resources.
Communication without words through gestures, use of space, silence, and so on.
A statement of how variables are expected to be related to one another, often according to predictions from a theory
A factor thought to be significant for human behavior, which can vary from one case to another
One of seven procedures that sociologists use to collect data; surveys, participant observations, case studies, secondary analysis, documents, experiments, and unobtrusive measures.
A sample in which everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the study.
Stratified Random Sample
A sample from selected subgroups of the target population in which everyone in those subgroups has an equal chance of being included in the research.
People who respond to a survey, either in interviews or by self administered questionnaires.
Questions that are followed by a list of possible answers to be selected by the respondent.
Research in which the researcher participates in a research setting while observing what is happening in that setting.
In its narrow sense, written sources that provide data; in its extended sense, archival material of any sort, including photographs, movies, CDs, DVDs, and so on.
The use of control and experimental groups and dependent and independent variables to test causation
A factor that causes a change in another variable, called the dependent variable.
The view that a sociologist's personal values or biases should not influence social research.
The standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly.
Sociology being used for the public good; especially the sociological perspective (of how things are related to one another) guiding politicians and policy makers.