1. A work house, created for employment and housing in London during the 16th century, is called: a. Brank b. Bridewell c. Stocks d. Sanctuary
d. Systematic autonomy from government officials
2. John Howard argued for four principles for prison reform. Which of the following is NOT one of these? a. Abolition of fees b. Reformatory regime c. Secure and sanitary structures d. Systematic autonomy from government officials
b. Great Law
3. William Penn, and the Pennsylvania Quakers, created a body of laws called the a. A. Code of Draco b. Great Law c. Sumerian code d. Hammurabic code
c. In the Walnut Street Jail
4. The first American institution exclusively dedicated to the correction of felons was a. In hulks b. An abandoned copper mine in Simsbury, Connecticut c. In the Walnut Street Jail d. In Gaols
d. Prisons are declining in use
5. Corrections is an important field of study because of all the following except a. A. corrections is undergoing rapid change b. Interests in reducing crime and safety c. Corrections impacts ordinary individuals everyday d. Prisons are declining in use
a. Unification of the Church and State
6. Sir Thomas More refused to accept which of the following statements that resulted in his death? a. Unification of the Church and State b. Change ecclesiastical law to suit the marital desires of Henry VIII c. Corporal punishment prevents crime d. Social conditions do not cause crime
7. The doctrine in which the aim of all action should be the greatest pleasure for the largest number of citizens is called a. Deterrence b. Penitence c. Rehabilitation d. Utilitarianism
b. Capital punishment is effective to deter criminal behavior
8. Which of the following statements did Cesare Beccaria not advocate? a. Crime should be considered injury against society b. Capital punishment is effective to deter criminal behavior c. The purpose of punishment should be to prevent crime d. The currency of punishment is the extent of injury to the victim
9. The punishment of banishment was replaced by all the following except a. Imprisonment b. Penal servitude c. Capital punishment d. Transportation
c. Moral and religious instruction
10. The Pennsylvania System initially used the following basic elements except a. Humane treatment b. No work c. Moral and religious instruction d. Solitary confinement
c. Correction in behavior is found through allowing interaction among inmates
11. The Auburn prison system is characterized by the following concepts except a. Relatively small cells b. Enforced idleness c. Correction in behavior is found through allowing interaction among inmates d. Used an inside cell-design
d. Release from prison should be based on time served
12. Maconochie's principles are based on all of the following except a. A prisoner should earn everything he receives in prison b. Labor in prison is based on improvement of conduct, frugality of living, and habits of living c. When appropriate, offenders should form small groups where everyone is responsible for each other's behavior d. Release from prison should be based on time served
a. The dismantling of the "fortress" type prisons
13. The period of transition, from 1935 to 1960, was marked by all the following except a. The dismantling of the "fortress" type prisons b. Effort to rehabilitate offenders c. The first Supermax prison in America d. The federal Bureau of Prisons became a national leader in corrections
a. Hard labor
14. The early part of the 1950's posed particular discontent because of a. Hard labor b. Lack of professional leadership c. Substandard personnel d. Excessive overcrowding of institutions
c. Solitary living conditions
15. Hallmarks to prisons in the 1960's include all the following except a. Power struggles between gangs and other groups b. Nature of inmate demands revolve around basic rights in prison c. Solitary living conditions d. Crowded living conditions, harsh rules, and poor food
b. Food deprivation is necessary to control behavior
16. Which of the following statements does not characterize the reformatory at Elmira? a. Increase academic education for reformation b. Food deprivation is necessary to control behavior c. A goal was to reform youths d. A gymnasium with modern equipment and bath facilities is advocated
b. These prisons widely adopted freedom of religion into the institution
17. Most prisons built during the Reformatory Era had all the following characteristics except a. These prisons abandoned the silent system b. These prisons widely adopted freedom of religion into the institution c. These prison started using indeterminate sentencing and parole d. These prisons were based on the Auburn System
b. Medical treatment
18. The prison population increased since 1960 due to all the following factors except a. A fear of crime b. Medical treatment c. Media and special interest groups d. The War on Drugs
a. Offenders are no different than the rest of society
19. Corrections must always ask, "Who are offenders and what are we expected to do with them?" Which of the following statement does not reflect a way that corrections historically answered this question? a. Offenders are no different than the rest of society b. Offenders are uneducated and ill-trained to function in modern society c. Offenders are out of touch with God and must repent d. Offenders are evil and must be destroyed
a. The refusal to provide meals for violating prison rules
20. Methods of discipline that have been used in the Auburn system include the following except a. The refusal to provide meals for violating prison rules b. Flogging to maintain control over prisoners c. Solitary confinement for violating prison rules d. Lockstep formation to maintain control over offenders
1. The basic reason for punishment include all of the following reasons except: a. Retribution b. Incapacitation c. Rehabilitation d. Deterrence
b. Retaliation fulfills a religious a religious mission
2. The theological view of retaliation argues which of the following: a. Punishment has a specific beneficial and social consequence b. Retaliation fulfills a religious a religious mission c. Punishment resolves social discord created by the offense and re-establishes a sense of harmony through requital d. Guilt must be washed away through suffering inflicted by punishment
3. Which of the following is a theory of punishment that argues the reason for punishment is to disable the offender from committing another crime? a. Retaliation b. Prevention c. Deterrence d. Incapacitation
4. Which sentencing structure underlies the treatment model? a. Presumptive sentencing b. Indeterminate c. Mandatory minimum d. Determinate
a. Expulsion from school to target for outside programming
5. The prevention ideology contains all of the following concepts except a. Expulsion from school to target for outside programming b. A focus on a child's social and emotional problems c. A focus on the individual and the environment around him or her d. Programs that generally begin in the school
a. Correctional ideology is a body of ideas and practices that pertain to the processing of offenders, as determined by law
6. Which of the following statements best describes the notion of correctional ideology? a. Correctional ideology is a body of ideas and practices that pertain to the processing of offenders, as determined by law b. Correction ideology is a relative notion of punishment adopted by a particular society c. Correctional ideology refers to all practices and procedures that seek to reform offenders d. Correctional ideology refers to those practices and procedures believed to be most effective in reducing recidivism
c. Not allow the victim a voice in the criminal justice process
7. Restorative justice purports all of the following elements listed below except a. Crime creates the obligation to make things right b. Make amends to the victim and community c. Not allow the victim a voice in the criminal justice process d. "the balanced approach."
c. Treatment ideology
8. This type of correctional ideology argues that criminality is a manifestation of pathology that can be managed or even reversed in some way. The goal of this ideology is to make offenders aware of their maladaptive behavior and to change it. Which correctional ideology does this refer to? a. Incapacitation ideology b. Deterrence ideology c. Treatment ideology d. Restorative justice ideology
9. For deterrence to work, punishment must be all of the following except a. A. closely linked to behavior that one wishes to stop b. Swift c. Harsh d. Certain
a. Punishment has a specific beneficial and social consequence
10. The utilitarian view of retaliation argues which of the follow? a. Punishment has a specific beneficial and social consequence b. Guilt must be washed away through suffering inflicted by punishment c. Retaliation fulfills a religious mission d. Punishment resolves social discord created by the offense and re-establishes a sense of harmony through requital.
11. On average, prosecutors bargain away ______ of cases. a. 30% b. 5% c. 10% d. 60%
d. Attorneys' personal attributes
12. The following factors are generally taken into account when prosecutors determine whether or not to dismiss a case from the court system except: a. Harm done to victim b. Research on sentencing c. Case's strength d. Attorneys' personal attributes
13. Indeterminate sentencing is most consistent with which goal of punishment? a. Deterrence b. Rehabilitation c. Incapacitation d. Retribution
b. Presentence investigation report
14. One main problem with sentencing is that judges have to be able to predict human behavior. A judge uses all of the flowing tools to make his or her sentencing decisions except: a. Intuition b. Presentence investigation report c. Research on prediction d. Experience
a. Administrative policies of sentences
15. As advocated by Walter C. Reckless, a presentence investigation report or PSI should include all of the following information except: a. Administrative policies of sentences b. Recommendations for sentence c. Objective content d. Subjective content
c. Banning early release to institutionalized offenders...
16. In recent years legislatures have increased control over the sentencing process of their state. Which of the following is not one of the strategies of legislative control? a. The introduction of determinate sentencing b. The institution of sentencing guidelines c. Banning early release to institutionalized offenders d. The use of mandatory prison terms
b. The correctional system's finite size
17. There are several sources of "pressure" in the correctional system discussed in your textbook that leads to practical problems in sentencing. Which of the following is not one of them? a. Limited resources b. The correctional system's finite size c. Sentencing discrimination d. The number of prisoners in institutions
d. The degree of repentance demonstrated by the offender...
18. Judicial and administrative sentencing processes share common criteria in decision-making. Which of the following is not one of them? a. The offender's past criminal record b. The use of good time c. Classification of the crime as aggravated, "normal," and mitigated d. The degree of repentance demonstrated by the offender
b. Weapons offenders
19. The least represented group of offenders in state prison are: a. Property offenders b. Weapons offenders c. Drug offenders d. Violent offenders
a. Two to ten years
20. An example of indeterminate sentencing would be which of the following sentences? a. Two to ten years b. Three strikes and you're out legislation c. Ten years plus five for aggravating factors of the crime d. Two years
d. Programs and services are provided in relatively equal proportion to individuals with suspended sentences and individuals on probation...
1. The relationship between the suspended sentence and probation are accurately depicted in all of the following statements except: a. A suspended sentence does not require supervision while probation does. b. The practice of suspending sentences in America has, to al large extent, been replaced by probation. c. Probation is a form of suspended sentence. d. Programs and services are provided in relatively equal proportion to individuals with suspended sentences and individuals on probation.
2. Probation became an official sanction, supported by state statute, in what year? a. 1812 b. 1856 c. 1878 d. 1907
a. Increase the imposed sentence for technical violations
3. Probation departments have duties to perform. Which of the following is NOT one of them? a. Increase the imposed sentence for technical violations b. Restitution management c. Investigate facts about the offense, offender, arrest, and technical violations d. Prepare the Presentence Investigation Report(PSI)
a. Private presentence reports
4. The Presentence Investigation Report generally includes all of the following information except: a. Private presentence reports b. Plan of supervision c. Past criminal information d. Level of risk of the offender
b. Drugs and alcohol use and abuse...
5. Offenders in prisons and jails have problems that contribute to crime commission. Which of the following is generally NOT one of these factors? a. Criminal or "bad" companions or friends b. Drugs and alcohol use and abuse c. Anti-social attitudes and values d. Self-esteem
c. An increase in supervision and program participation by the court due to non-compliance on the part of the probationer.
6. Tourniquet sentencing is: a. When the probation officer enhances probation requirements after the probation term begins. b. Specific conditions of probation reserved for drug, using offenders. c. An increase in supervision and program participation by the court due to non-compliance on the part of the probationer. d. Specific conditions for probation primarily used on high-risk offenders.
7. The Gagnon v. Scarpelli decision governs how probation may be withdrawn from an offender. This decision created all of the following due process rules except: a. A written notice of the probation hearing must be given to the offender. b. The probationer has the right to cross-examine witnesses. c. The probationer has the right to legal counsel when the case is too complex for the ordinary person to comprehend the legal issues involved. d. The hearing is before a jury.
b. The correctional system is given sole responsibility to supervise probationers....
8. Probation is characterized by all of the following statements except: a. Probation is not a sanction of confinement b. The correctional system is given sole responsibility to supervise probationers. c. Probation is characterized by conditions imposed on the offender that governs release into the community d. Recent developments in technology have increased the ability to monitor probationers' behavior.
d. The probationer can possess a firearm.
9. Probationers have general conditions of probation they must meet. Which of the following conditions is NOT a general condition of probation? a. The probationer must remain drug free. b. The probationer cannot leave the jurisdiction with court approval. c. The probationer must pay probation fees. d. The probationer can possess a firearm.
a. Make treatment the central element to probation.
10. The "Broken Windows" approach to probation calls for all of the following strategies except: a. Make treatment the central element to probation. b. Place public safety first. c. Emphasize performance-based initiatives. d. Collaborate with the community.
11. Which of the following types of correctional control is not considered to be a form of intermediate sanction? a. Probation b. Intensive supervised probation c. Electronic monitoring d. House arrest
a. Compensate the victim for loss of injury.
12. Restitution requires the offender to: a. Compensate the victim for loss of injury. b. Be incarcerated for his or her crime. c. Plea bargain for a lesser sentence. d. Be placed on probation.
...d. Day fines are still a fairly uncommon practice in the U.S. compared to Australia and England.
13. All of the following statements describe day fines except? a. Money paid to the criminal justice system based on a graduated punishment system. b. The offender's daily earnings determine the specific dollar amount of the fine. c. The revenue made by day fines is diverted to victim compensation funds. d. Day fines are still a fairly uncommon practice in the U.S. compared to Australia and England.
c. To divert drug-abusing offenders to intensively monitored treatment instead of incarceration.
14. Drug Courts were created to do which of the following? a. To increase the level of supervision of offenders over that of ISPs. b. To lower the rate of recidivism compared to that of ISPs. c. To divert drug-abusing offenders to intensively monitored treatment instead of incarceration. d. To more effectively utilize the principles of effective intervention.
b. Electronic monitoring terms average almost 1 year....
15. Findings from the use of electronic monitoring include all of the following except: a. The longer the period of monitoring, the higher the odds of success. b. Electronic monitoring terms average almost 1 year. c. Success rates for electronic monitoring range from 74-86%. d. Offenders may be charged to lease the electronic monitoring equipment.
c. The creation of intermediate sanctions
16. There were several events that coincided between 1975 and 1985 to create prison population boom. Which of the following is not a reason for this dramatic increase in prisoners? a. The War on Drugs b. The shift to conservative beliefs to deal with crime c. The creation of intermediate sanctions d. "baby boom" group in crime-prone age range
c. ISPs abdicate the use of rehabilitation.
17. Intensive supervised probation is a form of probation with increased supervision and control of the offender. Which of the following statements inaccurately describes this form of punishment? a. ISPs generally require multiple weekly contacts between the probationer and the probation officer. b. ISPs were first instituted by the state of Georgia in 1974. c. ISPs abdicate the use of rehabilitation. d. ISP is a punishment deemed for uncontro9llable and non-compliant probationers.
d. Reduce recidivism....
18. General goals of ISP; include all of the following statements except: a. Increase incapacitation over that of incarceration. b. Divert offenders from prison. c. Ensure public safety. d. Reduce recidivism.
b. Home detention may cause "net widening" in punishment.
19. Home detention has several advantages over incarceration. Which of the following is NOT one of them? a. Home detention generally costs less than incarceration. b. Home detention may cause "net widening" in punishment. c. Home detention is thought to help control prison population growth. d. Home detention offers a flexible alternative for certain offenders (such as pregnant offenders).
b. Treatment (rehabilitation) programs are rarely used.
20. Boot Camps have increased in number over the last twenty years. Which of the following statements is NOT true about boot camps? a. These camps typically target young non-violent offenders. b. Treatment (rehabilitation) programs are rarely used. c. Offenders generally enter as volunteers with a reduced duration of sentence incentive. d. Offenders are subject to militaristic drills and discipline.
1. Which of the following corrections staff has twenty-four hour contact with inmates? a. Policy-makers b. Custody c. Treatment d. Administrative
2. Which of the following is NOT a level of custody placed on the offender? a. Medium b. Open c. Minimum d. Close
b. Train staff.
3. A prison warden (superintendent) is typically responsible for all of the following duties except: a. Deal with politicians, the media, and other administrators. b. Train staff. c. Oversee prison operations. d. Supervise staff.
c. A tactic used by officers to create power in union negotiations.
4. What is the "blue flu?' a. A particularly virulent virus rampantly spreading in prisons. b. A code name among correctional officers for a poor administrative decision. c. A tactic used by officers to create power in union negotiations. d. A code name among correctional officers for administrative power trips.
5. Which of the following is the primary way that offenders' whereabouts are determined? a. Inspections b. Electronic monitoring c. Video surveillance d. Counts
b. Contraband is anything not authorized by institutional rules.
6. Which of the following statements best defines all contraband? a. Contraband can be used for escape. b. Contraband is anything not authorized by institutional rules. c. Contraband is anything the correctional officer says it is. d. Contraband is weapons.
c. Frisk search
7. The most common way to control the use and transportation of contraband is through which of the following procedures? a. Body cavity searches b. Shakedowns c. Frisk search d. Strip search
8. Gang affiliations in prison are centered on all of the following inmate characteristics except: a. Antisocial behavior b. Race c. Ethnicity d. Prisonization
b. A double gate that control all transportation in and out of the prison perimeter.
9. What is a sally port? a. A derogatory term for an inmate. b. A double gate that control all transportation in and out of the prison perimeter. c. The main entrance door to a prison d. The mess hall
c. Men have higher rule infractions rates than women.
10. Which of the following is NOT a conclusion we can draw regarding prison rule violations? a. Inmates in larger institutions or higher security prisons had higher percentages of rule infractions than other types of facilities. b. More than 90% of inmates who were charged with rule violations were found guilty in administrative proceedings. c. Men have higher rule infractions rates than women. d. Young inmates and those with drug histories are more likely to have prison infractions.
11. On average (national) what percentage of expenditures is for treatment services in correctional institutions? a. 10% b. 15% c. 20% d. 30%
c. Small pox
12. All of the following are major medical problems faced by prison and jail inmates today except: a. Hepatitis A and B b. HIV infection c. Small pox d. Tuberculosis
b. Religious worship is forbidden.
13. Religion services in prison suffers from all of the following problems except: a. One chaplain, who is traditionally trained in only one spiritual tradition, needs to provide spiritual services to inmates of all faiths. b. Religious worship is forbidden. c. Low salary to minister in prison. d. Prison chaplainry is not a particularly desirable job in the field.
a. Treatment providers usually outnumber educational providers.
14. Which of the following statements is NOT true about education services in prison? a. Treatment providers usually outnumber educational providers. b. Most state correctional systems legislatively mandate educational services for inmates. c. Some inmates are able to pursue two-year and four-year degrees while incarcerated. d. Most inmates are able to pursue a high school education while incarcerated.
a. They change the way offenders think.
How does cognitive intervention work? a. They change the way offenders think. b. They increase an offender's IQ. c. They place offenders in school. d. They help make an offender "school smart."
b. Teach religious doctrine
16. The general treatment model has all of the following goals except which listed below? a. Motivates inmates toward law-abiding behavior b. Teach religious doctrine c. Lessens criminal inclinations d. Lessens criminal behavior
a. When one of the treatment staff is sick, the position must be filled in order to maintain "minimal critical staffing."
17. All of the following are reasons why custody concerns outweigh those of treatment in institutions except: a. When one of the treatment staff is sick, the position must be filled in order to maintain "minimal critical staffing." b. Custody issues are immediate and mandatory. c. Treatment staff usually only work regular "workdays" during regular hours. d. Custody concerns are ever-present 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
a. Failure of social sciences
18. There are three persistent attributes of correctional management of treatment services. Which of the following is NOT one of these? a. Failure of social sciences b. Gradualism approach c. Isolation and withdrawal d. Goals of restraint and reformation
19. The treatment model of corrections generally divides treatment services into three types. Which of the following is NOT one of them? a. Educational b. Drugs c. Medical d. Religious
d. Job placement
20. All of the following are examples of the reintegration model except: a. Therapeutic communities b. Cognitive intervention c. Reality therapy d. Job placement
c. Violent felons sentenced to jail
1. Which type of offender is least likely to be found in jail? a. Probationers awaiting violation hearings in jail b. Non-violent felons sentenced to jail c. Violent felons sentenced to jail d. Misdemeanants sentenced to jail
a. Able to post bail
2. Jail inmates are more likely than not to be which of the following except? a. Able to post bail b. Young c. Male d. Disproportionately African American
b. Adult prison facilities are overcrowded.
3. Holdback jail inmates are held in jail because: a. They are awaiting bail to be set. b. Adult prison facilities are overcrowded. c. They are awaiting adjudication in the court system. d. They require extensive medical, physical, or psychological attention.
c. National institute of Justice
4. Several organizations have contributed the adoption of standards for jails. Which of the following is NOT one of these institutions? a. National Institute of Corrections b. American jail association c. National institute of Justice d. American correctional association
b. It is available to minimum as well as maximum-security offenders.
5. Which of the following statements does not describe the use or purpose of weekend confinement? a. It lessens the negative impact of short-term incarceration. b. It is available to minimum as well as maximum-security offenders. c. It allows the offender to retain employment while serving the sentence. d. It is called "doing time on the installment plan."
c. This disposition is generally imposed and completed to nullify the conviction.
6. All of the following statements are applicable to community work orders except: a. The individual performs community service duties as a condition of another sentence. b. The number of hours worked may serve to reduce any accompanying fines imposed during sentencing. c. This disposition is generally imposed and completed to nullify the conviction. d. The individual "volunteers" his or her time to the community agency.
d. 714,000 jail inmates
8. The Bureau of Justice Statistics (2004) estimated that the average jail population nation-wide on any given day is approximately how many inmates? a. 120,000 jail inmates b. 267,000 jail inmates c. 423,000 jail inmates d. 714,000 jail inmates
c. Extensive training
9. Which of the following is NOT a contributing factor to low quality jail personnel? a. Poor working conditions b. Political appointment c. Extensive training d. Low pay
d. Pretrial alternatives are more expensive than incarceration in jail.
10. Which of the following conclusions cannot be made about the use of pretrial alternatives? a. These programs reduce the jail population. b. People who are released pending trial fare better in court. c. Pretrial release alternatives fair as well as jail to prevent recidivism. d. Pretrial alternatives are more expensive than incarceration in jail.