Biology 103 Chapter 2
Terms in this set (40)
What is the link between colored pigment molecules and other organic molecules?
The DNA molecule genetic sequence regulates protein molecule function, which can specifically modify pigment structure that affects color.
The initial experiment of Koga and Fugatsu, in testing for any bacterial cause of aphid color change, involved all of these except
the specific amounts of red and green pigment molecules were initially measured as dependent variables.
The observations and research on aphid color changes can most directly be summarized in that
species of organisms can be chemically diverse and affect each other, even among similar groups of aphids and bacteria.
Researchers noted that only few aphids changed color to green from their original red. This is an unusual observation among any animals. What research question came out of the observations?
Is the color shift of certain aphids due to genetics or some other factor?
In the 1700s, a French scientist, Antoine Lavoisier gained new experimental information about how chemistry works. He isolated chemicals that were reacting, including a metal and an acid. His observation of the results seemed to show that much of the metal had been lost in the chemical reaction. Yet, upon weighing the system, the total amounts of materials had not changed during the reaction. His resulting law of Conservation of Mass also applies to biology, because the materials we are made of are _________ that change forms, but aren't truly lost as we conduct life chemical reactions.
The unique properties of water, including its strength as a solvent, its three environmental stages of solid, liquid, and gas, and its temperature regulation, are a result of
unbalanced electronegativity of the hydrogens and oxygens as they share electrons.
The correct functions of your lungs contribute to the normal pH level of between 7.35 and 7.45. If your lungs do not exchange and remove carbon dioxide from your blood, the blood pH will change. A pH 6.4 reading of your blood indicates
a health problem due to the pH value being 10X higher H+ concentrations than normal in your body.
Our normal blood pH should be in a fairly narrow range. Imagine you sit down to eat a large meal with cola, tomato-based sauce, and a salad with many citrus fruit slices. Identify the one statement that does not apply as one of the likely outcomes of your meal.
Your blood and body fluids will likely become more basic, with higher pH than the normal range.
In our diets, this molecule is often covalently bonded with others in the polymer form of
a complex carbohydrate.
The ring structure of glucose indicates that it is a(an)
The primary elements making up living organisms are
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and phosphorus.
The atomic number of an element is the number of
protons in the nucleus.
The mass number is defined as the total number of __________ of an atom.
protons and neutrons
An ion is an atom that has
a net negative or positive charge, with number of electrons different from number of protons.
An element is found to have atoms with eight electrons in its valence shell. The atoms will be ____
In a covalent bond, atoms
In an ionic bond,
atoms, having gained or lost electrons, attract one another with opposite charges.
Which statement summarizes the distinction between nonpolar and polar covalent bonds?
The electrons are more evenly and symmetrically distributed in orbit among atoms in a polar covalent bond.
The difference in electronegativity of the atoms in a nonpolar covalent bond is very large.
Polar covalent bonds are formed when the atoms gain or lose electrons to bond, and become oppositely charged ions.
--The electrons are more evenly and symmetrically distributed in orbit among atoms in a nonpolar covalent bond.
The chapter concept map links covalent and ionic bonds as chemical bonds that attract atoms or molecules. What is the chemical bond characteristic that contributes to the numerous important properties of water molecules for living organisms?
Hydrogen bonds form between water molecules, not requiring gain, loss, or sharing of electrons.
You can painlessly wade into a pool, but doing a belly flop off of the high diving board hurts because of
cohesion in water.
Trees are able to transport water from the roots to the top branches because
adhesion bonds water molecules to the insides of the plant cells.
Within a single molecule of water, as shown, ____ bonds are formed between oxygen and hydrogen.
You collect and measure samples of ice and surrounding ice water from a stream in the Winter. You find that you collected the same number of water molecules in each form. Water in the ice (solid) form floats in water of the liquid form because
in the ice form, the same number of water molecules are found in a crystal form, yet total larger volume than the liquid water.
is a chemical that adds hydrogen ions to a solution.
is a chemical that absorbs hydrogen ions from a solution.
Algal phytoplankton are single-celled water organisms that can do photosynthesis like plants. In a lake, summer growth of phytoplankton can change the water pH from pH 7.2 to 6.2. This change indicates all of these EXCEPT
the water at pH 6.2 has twice the hydrogen (H+) concentration as before the phytoplankton growth.
The four major groups of organic compounds are
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
In living cells, a process by which cells break polymers down into monomers by breaking covalent bonds is
Which is not a lipid?
The primary building block (monomer) of proteins is
an amino acid
The bond that builds amino acid monomers into protein polymers is
a covalent bond also known as a peptide bond.
Many diseases, cancers and even normal human variations can be caused by mutations and variations in the DNA nucleotide sequence. The most likely immediate result of DNA having a different nucleotide sequence is that
the primary structure of R group sequence in a protein would be altered.
The primary building block (monomer) of nucleic acids is
The three major components in a nucleotide are
a nitrogen base, a five-carbon sugar, and a phosphate group.
The four nitrogen bases found in RNA are
adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil.
Sugars (CH2O)n dissolve well in water because sugars form ____ bonds with water.
Saturated fats have long straight tails of fatty acids, and can pack or clump tightly together in cells and animal bodies. Unsaturated fats have kinks in their tails due to double bonds, which prevents them from packing together as tightly. Animals that are ectothermic (their body temperature fluctuates with the environment) need to keep their membranes fluid at cooler temperature and thus use ______ in their membranes.
mostly unsaturated fats
The group of organic molecule polymers with the most complex and diverse three-dimensional structure are
Having the typical ratio of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen of carbohydrates, the chemical formula for glucose is
If a carbohydrate polymer is limited to two monomer units, such as sucrose made from glucose and fructose, it is called
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