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23 terms

Islam vocab

WCA Ancient History final study spring 2009
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arabesque
an ornamental design consisting of intertwined, flowing lines
caliph
the chief Muslim civil and religious ruler, considered to be Muhammad's successor
calligraphy
decorative handwriting or handwritten lettering
hajj
the pilgrimage to Mecca which all Muslims are expected to make at least once in their lifetimes
Hejira
Muhammad's departure from Mecca to Medina in AD 622, marking the consolidation of the first Muslim community; the Muslim era reckoned from this date
Islam
the monotheistic religion of the Muslims, regarded by them to have been revealed through Muhammad as the Prophet of Allah; also means the Muslim world
Islamic
relating to Islam
imam
the person who leads prayers in a mosque; when capitalized, it is a title of various Muslim leaders, especially of one succeeding Muhammad as the leader of Shiite Islam
jihad
a war or struggle against unbelievers
Kaaba (Ka'ba)
a sacred shrine in Mecca, shaped like a cube, which the Muslims believe Abraham built; originally, it contained 360 pagan idols, but Muhammad cleaned them all out
Khadija
Muhammad's first wife; she was a rich widow in the caravan business and 15 years older than he was
mihrab
a niche in the wall of a mosque, at the point nearest Mecca, towards which the congregation faces to pray
minaret
a slender tower of a mosque with a balcony from which Muslims are called to prayer
mosque
a Muslim place of worship
Muslim (Moslem)
as a noun, a follower of Islam; as an adjective, relating to Muslims
muezzin
a man who calls Muslims to prayer from the minaret of a mosque
People of the Book
Muhammad's name for Jews and Christians
Quran (Qur'an or Koran)
the Islamic sacred book, believed to be the word of God as dictated to Muhammad; must be written down in Arabic to be considered valid or genuine
Ramadan
the ninth month of the Muslim calendar, during which strict fasting is observed during the daylight
Shia (Shiite--adj.)
the smaller of the two main branches of Islam, regarding Ali, the fourth caliph, as Muhammad's first true successor
Shiite
an adherent of the Shia branch of Islam
sultan
a Muslim sovereign or ruler
Sunni
the larger of the two main branches of Islam, differing from Shia in its understanding of the Sunna and in its acceptance of the first 3 caliphs; an adherent of this branch of Islam