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Astronomy Test 2 - Dwight Russell

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Mercury's atmosphere is denser than Earth's because it is closer to the sun. T or F?
False
How long is a day (Noon to Noon) in Mercury?
176 Earth days
What is true of Mercury?
A. Noon to noon is two years on Mercury because of the strange resonance rotation.
B. Mercury is very cold on the night time side.
C.
D. **BOTH A & B**
What is the Caloris Basin found on the planet of Mercury?
D. Large impact crater
What other small object like Mercury is less geologically active than the terrestrial planets?
D. The Moon
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Mercury?
B. It has a completely smooth terrain
Mercury is one of our solar system's _______
D. Rocky bodies (like Earth)
The planet Mercury is the ________ planet in our solar system.
A. Smallest yet second most dense
The side of Mercury that faces the sun experiences temperatures near the 427 degrees Celsius while the side that doesn't face the sun experiences temperatures as low as -173 degrees Celsius. Why is this?
A. Mercury has no atmosphere
What are the cliffs on Mercury called?
B. Scarps
Which is the largest state that can fit inside Mercury's crater Caloris Basin?
D. Texas
Which of the following is true about Mercury?
D. It is about 70% metallic
Mercury's orbit is:
A. More elliptical than Earth's
An unusual hilly formation on the opposite side of the planet from Caloris basin is known as?
C. Jumbled terrain
Which one of these planets doesn't have any moons orbiting in it?
E. Venus
Which of these planets has the highest average temperature?
B. Venus
How long is a day on Venus?
B. 243 earth days
The weather on Venus can best be described as:
C. Constant cloud cover
Which of the following planets takes longer to rotate once than revolute, and also rotates clockwise?
E. Venus
The atmosphere of Venus is mostly composed of what?
C. Carbon Dioxide
What is the largest mountain on Venus?
B. Maxwell Montes
Unlike other planets, Venus rotates on its axis in a direction ________ to its motion around the sun.
C. Opposite
What can be thought of as Earth's sister planet?
B. Venus
Which planets have the hottest and coldest surface temperatures, respectively?
D. Venus; Pluto
Maxwell Montes, the largest mountain on Venus, is what type of volcano?
B. Shield Volcano
Which planet in our solar system has the most volcanoes?
C. Venus
What is the term used to describe the altering of Venus's atmosphere to make habitable for human life?
C. Terraforming
The surface of Venus consists of specific features like
A. Maxwell Montes
B. Aphrodite Terra
C.
D. ***A & B ONLY***
Why is Venus much hotter than Mercury?
C. Because of the greenhouse gases within the Atmosphere
Which characteristic do both Earth and Venus share?
C. Hot Iron-Rich Core
What mountain on Earth has the highest altitude, from base to peak?
A. Hawaii
How much oxygen is Earth's atmosphere composed?
D. 21%
Which two elements make up the Earth's atmosphere?
C. Nitrogen and Oxygen
Water erosion dominates which planet?
B. Earth
What are the layers of the Earth's atmosphere in order from lowest altitude to highest altitude?
A. Troposphere, Tropopause, Stratosphere, Mesophere, Thermosphere
Earth's crust is:
A. A thin layer of the least dense rock material
What causes Earth to have electromagnetic fields?
A. Electric currents in the two regions that make up the Earth's core
Auroras are the result of
C. The interaction of Earth's magnetic field with Earth's atmosphere
Approximately how many miles is the Earth's surface from outer space?
A. 100 mi
Who drafted the first rough map of the ocean floors and suggested tectonic plate movement?
B. Tharp and Heezen
How much of the earth is contained in the oceans?
C. 96.5%
What is the order of the Earth's layers:
A. The crust, the mantle, the outer core, and the inner core
Which planet is the largest Terrestrial Planet?
C. Earth
The earth's core is as hot as the sun. T or F?
True
What is the radius of the Earth?
D. 6400 km
What type of waves have scientists used in order to learn about Earth's interior?
A. Seismic waves
The moon's mass is roughly 1.2% the mass of the Earth. T or F?
True
What is the moon's gravity in proportion to the Earth's gravity?
D. 1/6
The crust of the moon is thicker o the far side (the side furthest form the dart) and is thinner on the closer side (the side closer to the Earth) T or F?
True
How is the crust of Earth's moon composed?
C. Thicker on far side/thinner on Earth side
The Moon's gravitational pull on the Earth creates the Earth's...
C. Tidal bulge
Who was one of the first men on the moon?
C. Buzz Aldrin
Why is the moon's tidal force about twice as strong as the sun's?
B. The moon is much closer to Earth than the Sun is
How long does it take for the moon to revolve around the Earth?
C. 27 days
The moon was formed from...
C. The debris from a collision between Earth and protoplanet
Who first took step on the moon?
B. Neil Armstrong
The Moon has the largest density among all moons in the solar system. T or F?
False
What percentage of sunlight does the moon reflect?
D. 7%
The Mare of the Moon suggest:
B. Youngest areas of the Moon
What causes the formation of the central peak of a crater?
A. Underlying layers rebounding
Which of the following is not a type of moon rock?
D. Keptonic
Which of the planets below has the most similar tilt angle rotation axis to Mars (24.0 degrees)?
B. Earth
What is the length of a day in Mars?
B. 24 hours, 37 minutes
Which of the following planets does NOT have a density higher than 5000g/cm^?
A. Mars
What planet has the tallest mountains in our solar system?
B. Mars
Mars is ______ the size (volume) of the Earth's?
B. 1/16
What are the two moons of Mars similar to?
C. Asteroids
What rover is NOT on Mars?
C. Voyager
How many permanent polar ice caps does Mars have?
B. 2
Olympus Mons is the name for what on Mars?
C. Mars's largest mountain
What makes up the majority of Mars's atmosphere?
A. Carbon Dioxide
To what temperature does it typically drop to at night on Mars?
C. -100 Celsius
Can the stronger storms on Mars shroud the planet in dust in just weeks?
A. Yes
In relation to Earth, wat is the mass of Mars?
C. About 1/10th
How thick is Mars's atmosphere compared to Earth's atmosphere?
A. It is 100x thinner than Earth's atmosphere
Which of the following is evidence of water on Mars?
E. These are all evidence of water on Mars.
Which is not a moon of Jupiter?
C. Phobos
The Galilean moons are the ______ moons of Jupiter.
C. Four largest
What are the Jovian Planets in our Solar System?
B. Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Jupiter
What is different about Jupiter's rotation at the poles of its equator?
C. It rotates 6 minutes slower
How long is Jupiter's rotational period?
B. 10 hours
Which is the largest planet in our solar system?
A. Jupiter
What type of rain falls on Jupiter?
B. Helium-Neon Rain
What is the Great Red Spot on Jupiter?
C. An enormous hurricane
Which probe hasn't explored Jupiter?
A. Kepler III
Which planet in our solar system has the most moons?
C. Jupiter
Which Galilean moon of Jupiter experiences the strongest tidal force and is, consequently, the closest to the planet?
B. Io
Increasing their distance from Jupiter, what order are the Galilean moons in?
B. Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto
How big is Jupiter's mass in comparison to the Sun?
B. One thousandth
Which planet has the strongest magnetic filed in the solar system?
B. Jupiter
What is the atmosphere of Jupiter primarily made up of?
D. Hydrogen
Which of the giant planets has the lowest density?
C. Saturn
Which of the following characteristics does not apply to Saturn?
D. Blue coloring due to methane
How long does it take for Saturn to make one revolution around the Sun?
D. 30 Earth years
Saturn's rings are composed of:
B. Small icy debris that was caught in the orbit of Saturn and eventually created a ring shape.
How many main groups of rings does Saturn have?
B. 7
What elements are the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn primarily composed of?
B. Hydrogen and helium
Which one of these planetary bodies actually orbits Saturn?
B. Titan
Aside from the heat remaining from the planet's formation, what is the name for the process that generates heat on Saturn?
E. Helium precipitation
Why doesn't Saturn's rings fall into the planet?
C. The rings are in orbit
Saturn's rings are solid. T or F?
False
Saturn's atmosphere consists of:
B. Hydrogen and Helium
The surface temp of Saturn is:
D. 97 K
What creates Saturn's Rings?
C. Satellites of Saturn ripped apart
Which of these is a region that can be found in the internal structure of Saturn?
A. Metallic Hydrogen and Helium
What speed do the fastest winds reach on Saturn?
B. 1650 km/hr
What is the ocean of Saturn's moon, Titan, composed of?
D. Ethane and Methane
When did Voyager 2 fly by Uranus?
B. 1986
Which planet is named after a Greek god instead of a Roman one?
A. Uranus
Triton, Neptune's moon, has which characteristics?
A. A thin nitrogen atmosphere
B.
C.
D. Ice Volcanoes
E. **Both A & D**
Neptune is denser than Jupiter. T or F?
True
How long does it take Neptune to complete one orbit around the sun?
D. 164 years
Who is credited with the discovery of Uranus?
B. William Herschel
Which of the following planets has a 90 degree tilt?
C. Uranus
Why do Uranus and Neptune have a blue-green color?
A. Methane
Underneath the stratosphere, what is the next level of material of the atmosphere of Uranus and Neptune?
B. Methane ice
Which planet has a great dark spot similar to Jupiter's great red spot?
A. Neptune
A season on Neptune lasts for how many years on Earth?
D. 40 years
Which one of the officially recognized dwarf planets is NOT located in the outer solar system?
A. Ceres
How was the category of dwarf planets created?
D. Pluto did not fit well into the definition of other planets and many other objects like Pluto were found.
How many moons does Pluto have?
B. 5
Pluto is sometimes closer to the sun than:
B. Neptune
What is the nam elf Pluto's largest moon?
C. Charon
Now that Pluto is no longer included as a planet in the solar system, how many planets are there in the Solar System?
D. 8
What was the NASA spacecraft called that recently passed Pluto, taking great pictures of the surface of Pluto that we previously did not have?
D. New Horizons
Pluto was given its name by:
D 11 year old Venetia Burney
What is one use for the WISE telescope?
A. Sky surveys
How are comets formed?
B. By the collapse of a giant, diffuse cloud of gas and dust about 4.6 billion years ago.