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Intro to Corrections

1. A work house, created for employment and housing in London during the 16th century, is called:
b. Bridewell
2. John Howard argued for four principles for prison reform. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
d. Systematic autonomy from government officials
3. William Penn, and the Pennsylvania Quakers, created a body of laws called the
b. Great Law
4. The first American institution exclusively dedicated to the correction of felons was
c. In the Walnut Street Jail
5. Corrections is an important field of study because of all the following except
d. Prisons are declining in use
6. Sir Thomas More refused to accept which of the following statements that resulted in his death?
a. Unification of the Church and State
7. The doctrine in which the aim of all action should be the greatest pleasure for the largest number of citizens is called
d. Utilitarianism
8. Which of the following statements did Cesare Beccaria not advocate?
b. Capital punishment is effective to deter criminal behavior
9. The punishment of banishment was replaced by all the following except
d. Transportation
10. The Pennsylvania System initially used the following basic elements except
c. Moral and religious instruction
11. The Auburn prison system is characterized by the following concepts except
c. Correction in behavior is found through allowing interaction among inmates
12. Maconochie's principles are based on all of the following except
d. Release from prison should be based on time served
13. The period of transition, from 1935 to 1960, was marked by all the following except
a. The dismantling of the "fortress" type prisons
14. The early part of the 1950's posed particular discontent because of
a. Hard labor
15. Hallmarks to prisons in the 1960's include all the following except
c. Solitary living conditions
16. Which of the following statements does not characterize the reformatory at Elmira?
b. Food deprivation is necessary to control behavior
17. Most prisons built during the Reformatory Era had all the following characteristics except
b. These prisons widely adopted freedom of religion into the institution
18. The prison population increased since 1960 due to all the following factors except
b. Medical treatment
19. Corrections must always ask, "Who are offenders and what are we expected to do with them?" Which of the following statement does not reflect a way that corrections historically answered this question?
a. Offenders are no different than the rest of society
20. Methods of discipline that have been used in the Auburn system include the following except
a. The refusal to provide meals for violating prison rules
1. The basic reason for punishment include all of the following reasons except:
c. Rehabilitation
2. The theological view of retaliation argues which of the following:
b. Retaliation fulfills a religious a religious mission
3. Which of the following is a theory of punishment that argues the reason for punishment is to disable the offender from committing another crime?
d. Incapacitation
4. Which sentencing structure underlies the treatment model?
b. Indeterminate
5. The prevention ideology contains all of the following concepts except
a. Expulsion from school to target for outside programming
6. Which of the following statements best describes the notion of correctional ideology?
a. Correctional ideology is a body of ideas and practices that pertain to the processing of offenders, as determined by law
7. Restorative justice purports all of the following elements listed below except
c. Not allow the victim a voice in the criminal justice process
8. This type of correctional ideology argues that criminality is a manifestation of pathology that can be managed or even reversed in some way. The goal of this ideology is to make offenders aware of their maladaptive behavior and to change it. Which correctional ideology does this refer to?
c. Treatment ideology
9. For deterrence to work, punishment must be all of the following except
c. Harsh
10. The utilitarian view of retaliation argues which of the follow?
a. Punishment has a specific beneficial and social consequence
11. On average, prosecutors bargain away ______ of cases.
d. 60%
12. The following factors are generally taken into account when prosecutors determine whether or not to dismiss a case from the court system except:
b. Research on sentencing
13. Indeterminate sentencing is most consistent with which goal of punishment?
b. Rehabilitation
14. One main problem with sentencing is that judges have to be able to predict human behavior. A judge uses all of the flowing tools to make his or her sentencing decisions except:
c. Research on prediction
15. As advocated by Walter C. Reckless, a presentence investigation report or PSI should include all of the following information except:
a. Administrative policies of sentences
16. In recent years legislatures have increased control over the sentencing process of their state. Which of the following is not one of the strategies of legislative control?
c. Banning early release to institutionalized offenders
17. There are several sources of "pressure" in the correctional system discussed in your textbook that leads to practical problems in sentencing. Which of the following is not one of them?
c. Sentencing discrimination
udicial and administrative sentencing processes share common criteria in decision-making. Which of the following is not one of them?
b. The use of good time
19. The least represented group of offenders in state prison are:
b. Weapons offenders
20. An example of indeterminate sentencing would be which of the following sentences?
a. Two to ten years
1. The relationship between the suspended sentence and probation are accurately depicted in all of the following statements except:
d. Programs and services are provided in relatively equal proportion to individuals with suspended sentences and individuals on probation.
2. Probation became an official sanction, supported by state statute, in what year?
c. 1878
3. Probation departments have duties to perform. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
a. Increase the imposed sentence for technical violations
4. The Presentence Investigation Report generally includes all of the following information except:
a. Private presentence reports
5. Offenders in prisons and jails have problems that contribute to crime commission. Which of the following is generally NOT one of these factors?
d. Self-esteem
6. Tourniquet sentencing is:
c. An increase in supervision and program participation by the court due to non-compliance on the part of the probationer.
7. The Gagnon v. Scarpelli decision governs how probation may be withdrawn from an offender. This decision created all of the following due process rules except:
d. The hearing is before a jury.
8. Probation is characterized by all of the following statements except:
b. The correctional system is given sole responsibility to supervise probationers.
9. Probationers have general conditions of probation they must meet. Which of the following conditions is NOT a general condition of probation?
d. The probationer can possess a firearm.
10. The "Broken Windows" approach to probation calls for all of the following strategies except:
a. Make treatment the central element to probation.
11. Which of the following types of correctional control is not considered to be a form of intermediate sanction?
a. Probation
12. Restitution requires the offender to:
a. Compensate the victim for loss of injury.
13. All of the following statements describe day fines except?
c. The revenue made by day fines is diverted to victim compensation funds.
14. Drug Courts were created to do which of the following?
c. To divert drug-abusing offenders to intensively monitored treatment instead of incarceration.
15. Findings from the use of electronic monitoring include all of the following except:
b. Electronic monitoring terms average almost 1 year.
16. There were several events that coincided between 1975 and 1985 to create prison population boom. Which of the following is not a reason for this dramatic increase in prisoners?
c. The creation of intermediate sanctions
17. Intensive supervised probation is a form of probation with increased supervision and control of the offender. Which of the following statements inaccurately describes this form of punishment?
c. ISPs abdicate the use of rehabilitation.
18. General goals of ISP; include all of the following statements except:
a. Increase incapacitation over that of incarceration.
19. Home detention has several advantages over incarceration. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
b. Home detention may cause "net widening" in punishment.
20. Boot Camps have increased in number over the last twenty years. Which of the following statements is NOT true about boot camps?
b. Treatment (rehabilitation) programs are rarely used.
1. Which of the following corrections staff has twenty-four hour contact with inmates?
b. Custody
2. Which of the following is NOT a level of custody placed on the offender?
b. Open
3. A prison warden (superintendent) is typically responsible for all of the following duties except
b. Train staff.
4. What is the "blue flu?'
.c. A tactic used by officers to create power in union negotiations.
5. Which of the following is the primary way that offenders' whereabouts are determined?
d. Counts
7. The most common way to control the use and transportation of contraband is through which of the following procedures?
c. Frisk search
6. Which of the following statements best defines all contraband?
b. Contraband is anything not authorized by institutional rules
8. G ang affiliations in prison are centered on all of the following inmate characteristics except:
d. Prisonization
9. What is a sally port?
b. A double gate that control all transportation in and out of the prison perimeter.
10. Which of the following is NOT a conclusion we can draw regarding prison rule violations?
c. Men have higher rule infractions rates than women.
11. On average (national) what percentage of expenditures is for treatment services in correctional institutions
a. 10%
12. All of the following are major medical problems faced by prison and jail inmates today except:
c. Small pox
13. Religion services in prison suffers from all of the following problems except:
b. Religious worship is forbidden.
14. Which of the following statements is NOT true about education services in prison?
a. Treatment providers usually outnumber educational providers
How does cognitive intervention work?
a. They change the way offenders think.
16. The general treatment model has all of the following goals except which listed below?
b. Teach religious doctrine
17. All of the following are reasons why custody concerns outweigh those of treatment in institutions except:
a. When one of the treatment staff is sick, the position must be filled in order to maintain "minimal critical staffing."
18. There are three persistent attributes of correctional management of treatment services. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
a. Failure of social sciences
19. The treatment model of corrections generally divides treatment services into three types. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
b. Drugs
20. All of the following are examples of the reintegration model except:
d. Job placement
1. Which type of offender is least likely to be found in jail?
c. Violent felons sentenced to jail
2. Jail inmates are more likely than not to be which of the following except?
a. Able to post bail
3. Holdback jail inmates are held in jail because:
b. Adult prison facilities are overcrowded.
4. Several organizations have contributed the adoption of standards for jails. Which of the following is NOT one of these institutions?
c. National institute of Justice
5. Which of the following statements does not describe the use or purpose of weekend confinement?
b. It is available to minimum as well as maximum-security offenders
6. All of the following statements are applicable to community work orders except:
c. This disposition is generally imposed and completed to nullify the conviction
7. Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding early jails?
d. The original purpose of jails was to punish offenders who commit crime.
8. The Bureau of Justice Statistics (2004) estimated that the average jail population nation-wide on any given day is approximately how many inmates?
d. 714,000 jail inmates
9. Which of the following is NOT a contributing factor to low quality jail personnel?
c. Extensive training
10. Which of the following conclusions cannot be made about the use of pretrial alternatives?
d. Pretrial alternatives are more expensive than incarceration in jail.