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29 terms

Biotechnology

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recombinant DNA
fragment of DNA composed of sequences originating from at least two different sources
restriction endonulceases
enzymes that are able to cleave double-stranded DNA into fragments at specific sequences; also known as restriction enzymes
recognition site
a specific sequence within double-stranded DNA, usually palindromic and consisting of four to eight nucleotides, that a restriction endonuclease recognizes and cleaves
sticky ends
fragment end of a DNA molecule with short single-stranded overhangs, resulting from cleavage by a restriction enzyme
blunt ends
fragment ends of DNA molecule that are fully base paired, resulting from cleavage by a restriction enzyme
methylases
enzymes that add a methyl group to one of the nucleotides found in a restriction endonuclease recognition site, altering its chemical composition
DNA ligase
an enzyme used to join together DNA blunt or sticky ends
gel electrophoresis
separation of charged molecules on the basis of size by sorting through a gel meshwork
plasmids
small circular pieces of DNA that can exit and enter bacterial cells
multiple-cloning site
region in plasmid that has been engineered to contain recognition sites of a number of restriction endonucleases
cloned
a fragment of DNA that has been introduced into a foreign cell resulting in exact copies of the original DNA fragment being made when the foreign cell replicates and divides
transformation
introduction of foreign DNA, usually by a plasmid or virus, into a bacterial cell
vectors
vehicles by which DNA may be introduced into a host cell
host cell
a cell that has taken up a foreign plasmid or virus and whose cellular machinery is being used to express the foreign DNA
competent cell
a cell that readily takes up foreign DNA
genetic engineering
altering the sequence of DNA molecules
somatropin
a drug identical to human growth hormone (somatotropin) used to treat grwoth deficiency
polymerase chain reaction
amplification of DNA sequence by repeated cycles if strand separation and replication
DNA primers
short sequences of DNA nucleotides that are complementary to the opposing 3' to 5' ends of the DNA target sequence that is to be replicated
taq polymerase
DNA polymerase, extracted from thermus aquaticus, that is able to withstand high temperatures
polymorphism
any difference in DNA sequence, coding or non-coding, that can be detected between individuals
RFLP
a technique in which DNA regions are digested using restriction endonucleases and subjected to radioactive complementary DNA probes to compare the differences in DNA fragment lengths between individuals
autoradiogram
gel pattern imprinted on X-ray film by radioactive probes
sanger dideoxy method
DNA sequencing technique based on DNA replication that uses dideoxy nucleoside triphosphates
dideoxy analogue
nucleoside triphosphate whoe ribose sugar does not possess a hydroxyl group on the 2' and the 3' carbon
genetic screening
process by which an individual's DNA is scanned for genetic mutations
gene therapy
the alteration of genetic sequence in an organism to prevent or treat a genetic disorder
transgenic
organism in which foreign DNA has been artificially incorporated into its genome
DNA fingerprinting
pattern of bands on a gel, originating from RFLP analysis or PCR, that is unique to each individual