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Refers to ventricular relaxation.

cardiac cycle

A graph illustrating the pressure and volume changes during one heartbeat.


Average heart beats per minute.


Abnormal heart sounds which can indicate valvular problems.


Refers to the alternating surges of pressure in an artery that occur with each contraction and relaxation of the left ventricle.


The pulse is most often taken at the lateral aspect of the wrist, above the thumb, compressing the _____ artery.


Device used to measure blood pressure.


In reporting a blood pressure of 120/90, which number represents the diastolic pressure?

sounds of Korotkoff

The _______ are characteristic sounds that indicate the resumption of blood flow to the artery being occluded when taking blood pressure.


Refers to ventricular contraction.

dicrotic notch

Pressure fluctuation resulting from the closure of the aortic semilunar valves.

0.8 second

The length of the cardiac cycle.

atrial contraction

The first 0.1 second of the cardiac cycle.

atrial relaxation and ventricular contraction

Follows atrial contraction in the cardiac cycle and lasts 0.3 second.

ventricular relaxation

Follows atrial relaxation and ventricular contraction in the cardiac cycle and lasts 0.4 second.

the alternate contraction and relaxation of the myocardium and the opening and closing of valves

What are two different types of phenomena that control the movement of blood through the heart?

turbulent blood flow

Sounds heard in the cardiovascular system result from what?


How many distinct sounds are heard during each cardiac cycle?

lub, dup

Heart sounds described in monosyllables.


Referred to as S1 and is associated with closure of the AV valves at the beginning of ventricular systole.


Referred to as S2 and occurs as the semilunar valves close and corresponds to the end of the systole.


Which valve closes first, the mitral valve or the tricuspid valve?


Where would you place a stethoscope in order to hear the mitral valve more clearly?


In which intercostal space is the mitral valve located?

left clavicle

What is the apex in line with the middle of?

right sternal margin over fifth intercostal space

Where would you place a stethoscope in order to hear the bicuspid valve more clearly?

pulmonary semilunar valve

Which valve closes first, the aortic semilunar valve or the pulmonary semilunar valve?

second intercostal space, right of the sternum

Where would you place a stethoscope in order to hear the aortic valve more clearly?

second intercostal space, left of the sternum

Where would you place a stethoscope in order to hear the pulmonary valve more clearly?

pulse pressure

The difference between systolic and diastolic pressure is called _______.

apical pulse

The counting of heartbeats.

pulse deficit

Any large differences between pulse values. May indicate cardiac impairment, low cardiac output, or abnormal heart rhythms.

blood pressure

The pressure the blood exerts against any unit area of the blood vessel walls. Generally measured in the arteries.

systolic pressure

The pressure in the arteries at the peak of ventricular ejection.

diastolic pressure

The pressure in the arteries at the peak of ventricular relaxation.

cold pressor test

A blood pressure test in which one hand is immersed in unpleasantly (even painfully) cold water.

collateral vessels

An organ can remain viable even though its main arterial supply is occluded, as long as these are still functional.


A condition in which the direct line of stimulation swells.


Excess tissue fluid that has leaks out of capillaries.

lymph nodes

Serve as filters for the lymphatic system and occur at various points along the lymphatic vessels.


Three characteristics of the immune response are the ability to distinguish self from non self, memory and

T cells

Differentiate in the thymus.


T cells mediate ______ immunity because they destroy cells infected with viruses and certain bacteria and parasites.

(1) transports tissue fluid, (2) protects the body by removing foreign material

Two functions of the lymphatic system

lymphatic capillaries

Picks up leaked fluid and carries it to lymphatic collecting vessels and trunks.

right lymphatic duct

Drains lymph from the right upper extremity, head, and thorax.

thoracic duct

Receives lymph from the rest of the body.

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