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25 terms

chp.2

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Anabolism
Process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials
Catabolism
Process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simpler substances and release energy
Cell Membrane
thin, flexible barrier around a cell, regulates what enters and leaves the cell
Chromosomes
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
Cytoplasm
material between the cell membrane and the nucleus
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
Endoplasmic reticulum
structure within the cytoplasm that makes large proteins from smaller protein pieces
Genes
regions of DNA within each chromosome
Karyotype
picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell
Metabolism
the total of the chemical process in a cell
Mitochondria
the organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy; powerhouse of a cell
Nucleus
control center of the cell
Adipose tissue
collection of fat cells
cartilage
flexible connective tissue attached to bones at the joints
epithelial cells
skin cells that cover the external body surface and line the internal surfaces of organs
histologist
Specialist in the study of tissues
larynx
voice box
pharynx
throat
pituitary gland
endocrine gland at the base of the brain
thyroid gland
endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck
ureter
tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
urethra
tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
uterus
the womb
viscera
internal organs
trachea
windpipe