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lateral and rhotic

two types of liquids

lateral sound

tongue tip makes a midline, or central, closure with the alveolar ridge, but an opening is maintained at the sides of the tongue


voiced lingua-alveolar liquid


voiced lingua-palatal liquid


voiced lingua-palatal glide


voiced bilabial glide

lateral liquid


rhotic liquid


voice onset time

the interval between an oral articulatory event and the onset of voicing

retroflex /r/

an allophone which the tip of the tongue is turned up to point toward the palate

bunched /r/

an allophone which the tongue assumes a bunched or humped shape close to the palatal region

liquids articulatory summary

sound energy from the vocal folds is directed through a distinctively shaped oral passage, one that can be held indefinitely for sustained production of the sound, if required. the velopharynx is always (or at least almost always) closed. the oral passageway is narrower than that for vowels but wider than that for stops, fricatives, and nasals.


glides are also known as


are always followed by vowels


has a vocal tract constriction somewhat narrower then that for vowels but less severe than that for stops and fricatives and is characterized by a gliding motion of the articulators from a partly constricted state to a more open state for the following vowel.

glides articulatory summary

the constricted state for the glide is narrower than that for a vowel but wider than that for stops and fricatives. the articulators make a gradual gliding motion from the constricted segment to the more open configuaration for the following vowel. the velopharynx is generally, if not always, closed. the sound energy from the vocal folds passes through the mouth, in a fashion similar to that for vowels. always followed by a vowel


/p/ /b/ /m/ /w/


/ʒ/ /j/ /ʃ/ /r/ /dʒ/ /tʃ/


a vowel-like consanant in which voicing energy passes through a vocal tract that is constricted only somewhat more than vowels. The shape and location of the constriction is a critical defining property, being distinctive for a given type of liquid.


complex sound that is the most difficult one to work on in therapy, due to the difficulty describing its place of articulation

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Voice Recording