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Whistling sounds usually associated with obstructive airways


A high pitched crowing noise associated with upper airway obstruction

Rales & Rhonchi are abnormal breath sounds due to

Air mixing with secretions from the lungs.


A light bubbly cracking sound associated with serous secretions


A deep harsher sound resulting from thicker mucus.

What are the most frequent causes of absences of breath sounds?

Atelectasis which is a collapsed lung, or non aeration of the lung.


Difficulty or discomfort breathing, usually a person feels like they cannot inhale enough air. Manifestations include breathlessness or shortness of breath with either exertion or rest.

What are the signs of severe Dyspena?

Flared nostrils & retraction of the muscles (pulling in) between the ribs E.g. intercosatl muscles retract & are visible to the observer.


Dyspnea when a person is lying down.

Why might a person develop Orthopnea?

While one is lying down pulmonary congestion can develop & the abdominal contents can push upward against the lungs in a supine position.

How can we help a person suffering from Orthopnea?

Prop them up with pillows

Do normal healthy people suffer from Orthopnea?

Usually no, it is seen in individuals with pulmonary & cardiovascular disorders.

Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea

An acute type of dyspnea seen in individuals with L-CHF. During sleep body fluid is redistributed which leads to pulmonary edema. The Individual awakes gasping for air & coughing.

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