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76 terms

Immune Disorders

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hypersensitivity
excessive reaction to a harmless substance
factors influencing hypersensitivity
nature of allergen, route of allergen entry
assessment in hypersensitivity
history of exposure to antigen, onset, nature, duration, frequency, aggravating or alleviating factors, history of anaphylaxis
Benadryl
antihistamine used for urticaria and pruritus
Prednisone
corticosteroid used for erythema and edema
Albuterol
bronchodilator used for bronchospasm and decreases wheezing
intervention in hypersensitivity
wet compresses and soothing baths to provide comfort
urticaria
presence of wheals or hive
signs of urticaria
pruritus, edema, burning pain, dyspnea
angioedema
from of urticaria in subcutaneous tissue
signs of angioedema
bruning, pruritus, acute pain, respiratory distress
contact dermatitis
caused by hypersensitive, inflammatory reaction due to contact with environmental agent
signs of contact dermatitis
burning, pain, pruritus, edema, vesicles, papules
treatment for contact dermatitis
burrow's solution, cool environment, cold compressess
eczema
tiny blisters that itch and ooze on the skin, primarily in infants
signs of eczema
papular and vesicular lesions surrounded by erythema, yellow tenacious exudate, pruritus, scratching
treatment of eczema
tepid soaks for 15-20 minutes
at risk for latex allergies
known allergy to bananas and kiwi, women
dermatitis venenata
contact with certain plants, poison ivy, poison oak
exfoliative dermatitis
infestation by certain heavy metals, or by antibiotics, aspirin, gold or iodine
dermatitis medicamentosa
drug allergies, penicillin, codeine, iron
signs of dermatitis
mild to severe erythema and vesicular lesions, respiratory distress
treatment for dermatitis
therapeutic baths, corticosteroids
asthma
narrowing of the lung airways due to bronchospasm, edema of the mucous membrane, and inflammation
extrinsic asthma
pets, cold weather, smoke, wind
signs of asthma
dyspnea on exertion, wheezing, tachycardia, diaphoresis, use of accessory muscles, nasal flaring
transfusion reaction
may occur during or after a blood transfusion often due to mismatched blood
signs of transfusion reaction
dermatitis, diarrhea, fever, chills, urticaria, cough, orthopnea, wheezing, back pain, hematuria
priority in blood transfusion
vital signs before and after and every 15 minutes, checked by two licensed nurses, check identification band, remain with patient for first 15 minutes
O negative
universal donor
AB positive
universal recipient
transplant rejection
delayed T cell hypersensitivity reaction
immunotherapy
a special treatment of allergic responses that injects increasingly larger doses of the offending allergens to gradually develop immunity
anaphylaxis treatment with immunotherapy
0.3 mL of 1:1000 epinephrine hydrochloride SQ every 15 minutes for three doses
anaphylactic shock
immediate IgE mediated hypersensitivity reaction
signs of anaphylactic shock
cyanosis, pallor, sneezing, dyspnea, bronchospasm, hypotension, decreased cardiac output, tachycardia, urticaria, pruritus
delayed hypersensitivity
occurs 24 to 72 hours after exposure to soaps, lotions, poison ivy, poison oak, causes contact dermatitis
immunodeficiency
abnormal condition of the immune system in which cellular and humoral immunity is inadequate and resistance to infection is decreased
priority in immunodeficiency
monitor WBC count for infection
primary immunodeficiencies
phagocytic dysfunction, B cell deficiencies, T cell deficiencies, B and T cell deficiencies, and deficiencies of the complement system
priority in deficiencies of the complement system
protect from infection, no flowers, wash hands, private room, no raw foods, limit vistors
immunosuppressive meds
suppress the immune system
chemotherapeutic meds
methotrexate, cytoxan
autoimmune disorder
disorders in which the body fails to recognize itself and launches an immune response
examples of autoimmune disorders
pernicious anemia, ulcerative colitis, MS, Crohn's disease, thrombocytopenic purpura, Sjogrens syndrome
pernicious anemia
lack of intrinsic factor in the stomach which is needed for the absorption of B12
signs of pernicious anemia
sore beefy red tongue, weakness, fever, jaundice, weight loss, paresthesias, neuropathy
treatment of pernicious anemia
B12 injections for life, folic acid, iron supplements, conserve energy
ulcerative colitis
inflammatory bowel disease with tiny abscesses, purulent drainage, mucosal sloughing, ulcers
signs of ulcerative colitis
diarrhea containing blood, mucus and pus, abdominal pain, urge to defecate 15-20 times a day, weight loss, abdominal distention
priority in ulcerative colitis
reduce stress, high protein, high calorie, milk free, spice free diet
crohn's disease
chronic inflammatory bowel disease associated with altered immune mechanisms, primarily affects small intestines, may lead to malabsorption and development of pernicious anemia
signs of crohn's disease
diarrhea with mucus, steatorrhea, fistula formation
priority in cohn's disease
monitor skin for breakdown, lactose, brassica, spicy and caffeine free diet
rheumatoid arthritis
chronic, systemic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory changes in connective tissue, lack of treatment can lead to ankylosis
signs of rheumatoid arthritis
symmetrical joint pain, edema, subcutaneous nodules, limited ROM, involves the small joints
treatment for rheumatoid arthritis
chemotherapeutic drugs, analgesics
priority in rheumatoid arthritis
rest, exercise, heat to relax
systemic lupus erythmatosus(SLE)
genetic chronic, progressive, systemic inflammatory disease that can cause major organs and systems to fail
risk factors for SLE
medications, stress, genetics, sunlight or ultraviolet light, pregnancy
signs of SLE
raised red rash on the face or upper body, fever, malaise, anorexia, weight loss, redness of the palms, joint pain, photosensitivity
priority in SLE
use organic soaps, allow frequent rest periods, high vitamin, iron, carbohydrate, nitrogen diet
treatment for SLE
methotrexate for bone marrow suppression
good pasture's syndrome
auto-antibodies are made against the glomerular base membrane and neutrophils, common in young males, primarily affects the lungs and kidneys
signs of good pasture's syndrome
SOB, Hemoptysis, decreased urine output, edema, weight gain, HTN, Tachycardia
host versus graft disorders
graft attacks immunocompromised host, bone marrow transplantation
allogenic donor marow
donor is a sibling or parent with similar tissue type
synogenic donor marrow
from an identical twin
autologous donor marrow
most common type, donor is the recipent
scleroderma
multisystem disease with hardening of visceral organs and skin, leads to inability of involved organs to function normally, autoimmune
signs of scleroderma
pitting edema of the hands and fingers, taut, shiny skin with no wrinkles, stiffness, muscle weakness, pain
polyarteritis nodosa
collagen disease that leads to inflammation of arteries and subsequent thickening with impaired circulation, autoimmune
signs of polyarteritis nodosa
weakness, fatigue, weight loss, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, elevated ESR
pemphigus
skin disorder beginning with lesions on oral mucosa that spread to generalized body areas, autoimmune
signs of pemphigus
large fragile blisters, malaise, pain, impaired chewing or swallowing, foul-smelling skin discharge, positive nikolsky's sign
nikolsky's sign
when skin is rubbed, epidermis separates from underlying skin