43 terms

Psychology Chapter 8 Vocab

Vocab words from Psychology A Framework for Everyday Thinking, by Lilienfeld/Lynn/Namy/Woolf
fertilized egg
Developmental Psychology
study of how behavior changes over time
Post Hoc Fallacy
false assumption that because one event occurred before another event, it must have caused that event
Cross-sectional Design
research design that examines people of different ages at a single point in time
Longitudinal Design
research design that examines development in the same group of people on multiple occasions over time
Gene-environment Interaction
situation in which the effects of genes depend on the environment in which they are expressed
prior to birth
Ball of identical cells early in pregancy that haven't yet begun to take on any specific function in a body part
Second to eight week of prenatal development, during which limbs, facial features, and major organs of the body take form
period of prenatal development from the ninth week until birth after all major organs are established and physical maturation is the primary change
environmental factors that can exert a negative impact on prenatal development
Motor Behavior
bodily motion that occurs as a result of self-initiated force that moves the bones and muscles
Cognitive Development
study of how children learn, think, reason, communicated, and remember
Piagetian process of absorbing new experience into current knowledge structures
Piagetian process of altering a belief to make it more compatible with experience
Sensorimoter Stage
stage in Piaget's theory characterized by a focus on the here and now without the ability to represent experiences mentally
Object Permanence
the understanding that objects continue to exist even when out of view
Preoperational Stage
stage in Piaget's theory characterized by the ability to construct mental representations of experience, but not yet perform operations on them
inability to see the world from others' perspectives
Piagetian task requiring children to understand that despite a transformation in the physical presentation of an amount, the amount remains the same
Concrete Operations Stage
stage in Piaget's theory characterized by the ability to perform mental operations on physical events only
Formal Operations Stage
stage in Piaget's theory characterized by the ability to perform hypothetical reasoning beyond the here and now
Vygotskian learning process in which parents provide initial assistance in children's learning but gradually remove structure as children become more competent
Zone of Proximal Development
phase of learning during which children can benefit from instruction
Theory of Mind
ability to reason about what other people know or believe
Stranger Anxiety
a fear of strangers developing at 8 or 9 months of age
the strong emotional connection we share with those to whom we feel closest
phenomenon observed in which baby birds begin to follow around and attach themselves to any large moving object they see in the hours immediately after hatching
Contact Comfort
positive emotions resulting from touch
basic emotional state that appears early in development and is largely genetic in origin
Average Expectable Environment
environment that provides children with basic needs for affection and discipline
Gender Identity
individuals' sense of being male or female
Gender Role
behaviors that tend to be associated with being male or female
the transition between childhood and adulthood commonly associated with the teenage years
Primary Sex Characteristics
the reproductive organs and genitals that distinguish the sexes
Secondary Sex Characteristics
sex-differentiating characteristics that don't relate directly to reproduction, such as breast enlargement in woman and deepening voices in men
start of menstruation
boys' first ejaculation
our sense of who we are and our life goals and priorities
Psychological Crisis
dilemma concerning an individual's relations to other people
Midlife Crisis
supposed phase of adulthood characterized by emotional distress about the aging process and an attempt to regain youth
Empty-nest Syndrome
alleged period of depression in mothers following the departure of their grown children from home
the termination of menstruation, marking the end of a woman's reproductive potential