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History Exam (WWII/Modern Art)

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Expressionism
modern art form in Germany that used bright colors to predict a particular emotion (the scream), tragic life- turbulent art, Edward munch example, non-representational, color harmony, visual song
Edvard Munch
norweigan expressionist, the scream
Franz Marc
modern artist expressionist w/ animal destinies, 1913, animals w/ bright colors, fought in WWI- art more chaotic and angry
Wassily Kandinsky
modern art expressionist- On White II (1923)
Secessionism
Austrian expressionism- natural uprising, instability, disrupts conservative values, obsessed w/ self, humans despairing
Gustav Klimt
the kiss, danae,, nude women
Fauve
wild beast, based in Paris,, happier, more optimistic, colors in violent ways, flatter, brighter comforting
Henri Matisse
Carmelina, open windowed
Cubism
modern art- subject broken down, reanylyzed,
George Braque
cubist, women with guitar, still life
Pablo Picasso
cubist, les demoissel de avgun- famous after this, freaky ways of depicting women
DaDa
modern art that ridiculed comtemporary culture and traditional art forms, collapse of WWI, delibrate irrationality
George Groz
dadaist
Raoul Hausmann
dadaist that worked with collages
Marcel Duchamp
dadaist, art is an artist who finds an object, shows other use, application of it, what point does it become art (the fountain)
Surrealism
modern art, confusing and starting images like those in dreams
Salvador Dali
surrealist, persistence of memory, puts childhood fears in art, influenced by feud's theories on phychoanalysis and the subconscious, came from Dada
Frank Lloyd Wright
Bauhaus guy, function should determine form, materials and form should fit environment
Bauhaus
based on the ideals of simplified forms and functionalism, idea that machine economy could deliver elegantly designed items for masses, used materials employed especially in industrial fabrication and manufacture
Walter Gropius
Bauhaus building (1928)
Fascism
is the totalitarian philosophy of the gov't that glorifies the state and nation and assigns to the state control over every aspect of national life.
Benito Mussolini
leader of Fascist Italy. He rose to power legally, during problematic times in Italy. He believed in intense nationalism and organized a Fascist party in 1919. Using the "Black Shirts," his secret police, the Fascist party became prominent in Italy, and in 1922, when Fascists made a bid for power, the King of Italy appointed Mussolini as prime minister of Italy in fear that civil war would begin. Mussolini ran a Fascist Italy between 1922 and 1945, and was a prominent Axis power during World War II. He was captured, tried, and executed by Italians angry with him in 1945.
Locarno treaties
series of treaties signed by seven European nations in Locarno, Switzerland in 1925. The treaties settled Germany's disputed borders with France, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, and Poland. The Locarno treaties became the symbol of a new era of peace and prosperity.
Kellogg-Briand Pact
agreement that promised to "renounce war as an instrument of national policy." It was signed by almost every independent nation and showed the hope for peace.
Maginot Line
border between France and Germany to instill a sense of security, but was invaded by Germany anyway in 1940
New Deal
FDR's package of social and economic programs to free the US from the great depression. Became more directly involved w/ people/s lives
margin buying
paying part of the cost and borrowing the rest from brokers. Then they couldn't pay off the loans
Sigmund Freud
He was the first to emphasize the significance of unconscious processes in normal and neurotic behavior and was the founder of psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis
investigating the interaction of conscious and unconscious elements in the mind and bringing repressed fears and conflicts into the conscious mind
Weimar Republic
democracy in Germany created after the close WWI, caused inflation and weak politically because of its many small parties
Adolf Hitler
leader of the Third Reich, leader of the Nazi Party, and author of "Mein Kampf." Throughout the 1930s, he violated the Treaty of Versailles, imposed restrictions on German Jews, and initiated World War II in September 1939, when he invaded Poland. At first Germany was very successful in the war, but after betraying the USSR, Germany soon was forced to retreat back to Germany. Meanwhile, the Holocaust was underway, and thousands were dying daily. Hitler was also the target of few assassination plots during the war. As the war neared its end, Hitler committed suicide in Berlin, Germany on April 30, 1945, as Allied troops approached Berlin.
Mein Kampf
book Hitler wrote while in jail that became the basic book of Nazi goals and ideology. Showed Aryans as most powerful.
Third Reich
Hitler's German Empire that disobeyed the Treaty of Versailles, enforced totalitarian rule, and enforced many public work programs to help get germany out of depression.
Kristallnacht
nov 9 and 10, 1938, german mobs attacked jewish communities across germany
Nuremburg Laws
laws set upon Jews in Germany to restrict them and send them out
Aryanism
Hitler's perfect person that he tried to make in all of Europe and all other races were considered inferior
Appeasement
made between france and Britain to keep peace after germany started to expand and broke the treaty of Versailles
Haile Selassie
"Might of the Trinity", emperor of Ethiopia and was exiled when Italy invaded
Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis
cooperation during WWII towards fighting soviet communism and not to interfere w/ each others plans of expansion
Treaty of Versailles
The treaty redivided the territory of the defeated Central Powers, restricted Germany's armed forces, and established the League of Nations. It left Germany smarting under what it considered a vindictive settlement while not sufficiently restricting its ability eventually to rearm and seek forcible redress.
League of Nations
an association of countries established in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles to promote international cooperation and achieve international peace and security. It was powerless to stop Italian, German, and Japanese expansionism leading to World War II and was replaced by the United Nations in 1945.
Francisco Franco
Spanish conservative general who started civil war, franco triumphs
Nationalists
those who supported franco in Spanish civil war
Loyalists
those who supported republic in Spanish civil war
Guernica
battle and painting by Pablo Picasso, German air raid on a small Spanish market town during the Spanish civil war
Anschluss
after Hitler had annexed Austria, he called the Austrian German union Anschluss
Sudetenland
the city the Czech's surrendered to Hitler and Hitler assured France and Britain he had no more expansion plans
Joseph Stalin
dictator of the USSR
Nazi-Soviet Pact
peaceful relations between Hitler and stalin that said they couldn't fight if the other was in war and to divide up Poland and the rest of Europe
Munich Conference
Britsh and French leaders again chose appeasement, gave into hitler's demands, and convinced Czech to surrender
Blitzkrieg
lightning war way that germany attacked Poland and Britain. First bombing planes, then troops and tanks
Phony War
when Britain and France went to guard maginot line and waited for Hitler to attack
Miracle of Dunkirk
when the Nazis pushed British troops to waters edge in france, then Britain sent everything on water to go save 300,000 british, trapped troops
Henri Petain
French general who surrendered France to Germany
Charles De Gaulle
leader of free French who were exiled and set up gov't outside of france, wanted to liberate the homeland
The Maquis
French resistance against Hitler
Vichy Government
puppet government in france led by germans
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
a plan for Japanese to help Asians escape western colonial rule and the real goal was a Japanese Asia. Started to destroy culture in all of asia and national groups then made guerilla warfare.
Luftwaffe
german air force that bombed britian
Axis Powers
Japan, Germany, Italy
Allies
US, USSR, UK
Battle of Britain
Operation Sea Lion. Daily german bombardment on London and the southern coast. Continued for 57 nights. Citizens continued w/ daily lives but had many bomb shelters. Morale not destroyed though, actually strenghtned. Britian saved when turned to attack Russia
(Blitz)
daily bombardment by germans on britian
Operation Barbarossa
German conquest of the Soviet Union. Caught Soviet Union off guard, killed a lot, but cold and germans froze to death. Siege of Leningrad.
Lend-Lease Act
allowed FDR to send war materials to any country that needed to be defended in order to keep the US defended.
Atlantic charter
Churchill and FDR worked together to create a warship in the Atlantic and to stop nazi tyranny
D-Day
allied invasion of france on June 6. 1944. Eisenhower was the commander. At night, paratroopers sent behind enemy lines, then brought allied troops across English channel.
Battle of the Bulge
last battle Hitler won as allies moved towards Belgium and Germany, german troops pushed back and created bulge but couldn't hold US.
Kamikaze
Japanese fighters who commited suicide and flew airplanes into American ships. Believed it was to die in honor.
Franklin Roosevelt
president of United States at beginning of war. Implemented New Deal and declared war. Had polio.
Winston Churchill
prime minister after Neville chamberlain, rallied british to fight on with many speeches and withheld the blitzkrieg
Neville Chamberlain
prime minister at beginning of war and before Winston Churchill
Eduardo Daladier
French leader who disagreed with the decisions made at the Munich conference
Hirohito
emperor of Japan who declared war on the US then surrendered
Hideki Tojo
main general of Japan who hoped to sieze lands in Asia and the Pacific
Erwin Rommel
German general sent to N Africa. Called the desert fox, many successes, pushed british back into cairo, Egypt.
Bernard Law Montgomery
british gerneral that stopped rommel's from advancing inn Africa during the fierce battle of alamein.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
worked with Montgomery to trap rommel's army and made them surrender in 1943.
George S. Patton
American general who lead troops through north Africa and italy and assaulted germans/ trapped them in Tunisia
Lebensraum
German living space, Nazi reasoning for German expansion
Nuremberg Trials
series of trials of captured leaders of Nazi Germany after the war
Cold War
while stalin wanted to spread communism and create a zone of friendly governments as defense against germany and thought he could decide to do what he wanted to do w/ countries he overran, british and Americans disagreed. Stalin put pro-communism governments throughout eastern Europe and Truman instigated a conflicting Truman doctrine. Europe split in half. Then an arms race began to show how powerful each country actually was.
Heinrich Himmler
chief of SS and Gestapo. Established and oversaw the holocaust
Truman Doctrine
foreign policy instigated by Truman to contain Soviet relations and fund Greece and Turkey to stop communism
Marshall Plan
the US funneled food and economic assistance to European countries to rebuild.
United Nations
allies set up international organization to ensure peace after war. Worked together on world problems from disease to improving education
Island-hopping
US started hopping and taking over island after island to get closer and closer to Japan
Claus von Stauffenburg
assassination plot of Hitler, tried to bring bomb into meeting, failed