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6 steps

Step 1

chondrocytes in the center of hyaline cartilage enlarge & form struts which begin to calcify. Then the enlarged chondrocytes die, leaving cavities in the cartilage

Step 2

Blood vessels grow around the edges of cartilage; cells in the perichondrium change to osteoblasts, producing a layer of superficial bone around the shaft which will continue to grow & become compact bone (appositional growth)

Step 3

Blood vessels enter the cartilage, bringing osteoblasts, spongy bone develops at the primary ossification center

Step 4

Remodeling creates a marrow cavity, bone replaces cartilage at the metaphyses

Step 5

Capillaries & osteoblasts enter the epiphyses, creating secondary ossification centers

Step 6

Epiphyses fill with spongy bone, cartilage remaining within the joint cavity is the articulation cartilage (Hyaline cartilage only in this phase)

Zone of resting cartilage

small scattered chondrocytes

Zone of proliferation

chondrocytes enlarge & divide

Zone of hypertrophy

chondrocytes are further enlarged

Zone of calcified cartilage

degeneration & death of chondrocytes

Appositional growth

enlarges - width of bone

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