Biology 103 Chapter 3
Terms in this set (45)
The scientist(s) given credit for first using the term "cell" to describe the basic unit of life is (are)
The scientist(s) given credit for disproving the theory of spontaneous generation is (are)
Identify the largest distinction between the theory of spontaneous generation and the cell theory.
Spontaneous generation proposes life can form from available molecule components, while cell theory explains cell reproduction functions.
The scientist(s) given credit for formulating the "cell theory" is (are)
Mathias Schleiden and Theodore Schwann.
The original three tenets of the cell theory are
all organisms are made of one or more cells, the cell is the fundamental unit of life, and all cells come from preexisting cells.
The ways by which a cell avoids surface limitations to needed diffusion of materials include
having microscopic extensions of the cell membrane.
having a flattened shape.
being long and thin.
having specialized structures for labor, termed organelles.
---All of these answer options are correct.
Determine which of these cells has the largest problems due to surface area limitations.
An amoeba cell in a lake may be 0.50 millimeters, variable in shape with many long, narrow extensions of the cell.
---A human egg cell is often 0.13 millimeters, and is spherical in shape.
An epithelial cell lining any mammal arteries may be 0.03 millimeters, and has a very flat shape.
A normal E. coli fecal cell in the digestive tract of animals may be 0.003 millimeters, in a rounded rod or cylinder shape.
The primary structural molecule composing a cell membrane is a(n)
A phospholipid molecule has
a hydrophilic head that is attracted to water.
A cell membrane is not
----a rigid structure.
a bilayered structure.
a mosaic structure.
composed of phospholipid molecules.
a fluid structure.
A prokaryotic cell
does not have a nucleus.
Consider that you have access to use fluorescent tagging of specific proteins and view cells in a confocal microscope. You isolate a cell with the fluorescent dyes, showing that a very tiny, single-celled organism has not only a cell membrane, but internally folded membranes. You determine also that the membranes do not completely surround internal specialized compartments of the cell. You identify this as
A eukaryotic cell
has membrane-bounded organelles.
The three domains in the Woese system of classification are
Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya.
Organisms included in the diverse domain Eukarya include
animals, plants, fungi, and protists.
Members of Archaea are often referred to as extremophiles because many live in conditions of extreme
----All of the answer choices are correct.
The theory of endosymbiosis is based on
the observations that chloroplasts and mitochondria resemble bacteria.
An organelle found in plant cells and some members of the kingdom Protista but not in animal cells is a
The function of the nucleolus is
assembly of components of ribosomes.
Between their specialized functions, the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum do not
The main organelles and structures involved by distinct function with milk production and secretion in their correct sequence are
nucleus, nuclear pore, rough ER, smooth ER, transport vesicle, Golgi apparatus, vesicle for secretion.
Which of the following organelles are cellular digestion centers?
lysosomes and peroxisomes
Liver cells help clean your blood with a wide range of digestive enzymes that hydrolyze toxic molecules. The liver cells would have ____, which are organelles specialized to do this.
You have macrophage white blood cells that can respond to injury and infection by moving to the site of the wound. They can ingest infectious bacteria or virus, and digest the organic molecules of what they take in. The digestion organelle they have is the
Chloroplasts are not
responsible for cellular respiration
Mitochondria do not
carry out photosynthesis.
A common hypothesis and casual assumption is that dogs originated from wolves. Because of the wide range of body sizes and shapes, other hypotheses include dog ancestry of jackals, coyotes, dingos or other wild dog species. In recent years, several studies have been done to clear up the lineage. One study tested the Y chromosome DNA that can only be passed down from male to male, and the other other study tested the mitochondrial DNA because _____.
the mitochondrial DNA is only passed down through females to each new generation.
A central vacuole of a mature plant cell
produces turgor pressure.
Which are recycling centers for the cell?
central vacuole and lysosome
A cytoskeleton is
a system of tracks used for intracellular transport.
found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
----All of the answer choices are correct.
a structure that aids in the process of cell division.
composed of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments.
Cilia in eukaryote cells
---can be used in eukaryotes to do any of these functions.
can beat in unison to help a single cell, such as a protist, to swim.
can assist digestive tract cells in absorbing food molecules.
can move in unison to establish a current to move objects, as with human eggs through the reproductive tract.
can add surface area for senses such as taste, smell, balance, hearing.
A junction that is a protein channel linking the cytoplasms of adjacent animal cells is called a(n)
A structure found in cells of all three domains, prokaryotes and eukaryotes, is the
If the cell was a cube and you doubled the height, width, and length of the cell, how much would the surface area increase?
If the cell was a cube and you doubled the height, width, and length of the cell, how much would the volume increase?
What is the selective advantage of a mature red blood cell being flat rather than a sphere?
It maximizes the relative surface area available to exchange gasses.
Eukaryotic cells are 10-100 times the size of prokaryotic cells. How do eukaryotic cells resolve the surface area to volume limitations that favor smaller cells?
Organelles keep reactions compartmentalized and concentrated.
You discover a new life-form, and study it under an electron microscope. You find that its cells have no organelles, a peptidoglycan cell wall, and fatty acids in its plasma membrane. You conclude that the new life-form is in which domain?
When phospholipids are mixed with water their ____ interact with water and their ____ are repelled, forming a lipid bilayer.
hydrophilic heads; hydrophobic tails
When membrane-bound receptors like HER2 bind to molecules outside of a human cell, they must move laterally within the bilayer and also bind to a second HER2 receptor, forming a dimer (2-part molecule), in order for the signal to be further tranferred inside the cell through the membrane. This is possible because the cell membrane is
both selectively permeable and a fluid mosaic.
In order for a milk protein to be secreted in mammals, these events must happen in the correct organelle function sequence.
DNA transcription in the nucleus-passage of mRNA out of nucleus; translation of mRNA by the ribosome-packaging of proteins by the endoplasmic reticulum
A wild duck needs a steady supply of energy to be able to fly for hours. Domesticated chickens rarely fly. As a result you would expect to find _____ in the breast muscles of wild ducks than domesticated chickens.
How do vesicles carrying proteins destined for secretion move to the plasma membrane?
In a human, the intestines need to form a barrier to prevent bacteria and other microbes from moving into the bloodstream from the gut. Which of the following would prevent bacteria from moving between intestinal cells?
You are working on a forensics team and collect some cells from a crime scene. The cells are angular, rigid, and have a cell wall made up of cellulose. This sample most likely came from a(n)
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