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What is sometimes called "applied science". applies scientific understanding to solve problems. and can refer to objects used to accomplish tasks?
Who use physical science to explain how planets use carbon dioxide and water to make food?
The field of ______ uses physical science to explain the composition of planets, the light emitted by stars, and the motion of different galaxies in the universe
A(n) ______ uses physical science to explain the nitrogen cycle and the transfer of energy between organisms in a food chain.
Physical science is used to study the movement of air masses, weather patterns, and the composition of the atmosphere in the field of ______
After concluding that your tests support your hypothesis, you should ______
publish the results so that other scientists can learn from you
A plastic disk's density is less than water but great than oil. If you put all three into a glass container, where would you see the disk?
Between the water and the oil
Stopwatches, rulers and computers are all ______ that are used to collect data during an experiment
One way to compare the densities of oil and water is to pour the liquids into a glass container and observe how they ______
separate into layers
When a canoe overturns a pocket of air forms inside the canoe because air ______
has volume, takes up space even though it's invisible, and is matter
Given that the mass of the moon is one sixth of the mass of Earth, ______
a man could jump six times higher on the moon than on Earth
Tom's 7year old brother is more difficult to pick up than his 2 year old sister because ______
his brother has more inertia
How do you measure the volume of a screw?
place it in a graduated cylinder and seeing how much liquid it displaces
What happens when a gas in a balloon increase?
the volume of the gas increase and the speed of particles increase
the particles of water that evaporate from an open container have _______ than the particles that remain
more speed and higher energy
In a gaseous state, particles_____
move independently from one another, move fast enough to break away completely from one another, and have empty space between them
What is heat?
a transfer of energy that causes the temp. of a substance to change and can lead to a change of state
If gallium is 30 degrees and your body heat is 37 degrees, gallium would melt in your hand because ____
energy is transferred from your hand to gallium
Water is a liquid nd iron is a solid at room temp., so iron must have a ____ than water.
higher freezing point
As you clean the kitchen cupboards, you find an unlabeled container of white powder. As you set the container on the countertop, you accidentally spill some of the powder into a cup of vinegar. The mixture fizzes and bubbles, which means that the white powder is ______
Although the Statue of Liberty is made of copper (originally an orange-brown color), it is green because the copper has interacted with the substances in the air to form new substances with different properties. This is an example of a ______
The importance of gravity came to Isaac Newton in 1666, when he saw an apple fall from a tree. The measurement of gravitational force is expressed in newtons. One newton is approximately the weight of one ______
Precious metal in catalytic converters on cars change harmful carbon monoxide exhaust fumes to harmless ones. This is an example of a ______ change
When you add bleach to the water while you are washing your clothes, you are encouraging ______
a chemical change
The ____ overcomes the elctromagnetic force in an atomic nucleus, holding the nucleus together
When an element seemed to be missing from the table, Mendeleev would ____
predict the element would be discovered, predict the properites of the element, and leave a gap
when a substance looses or absorbs energy, what can change?
it's tempurature, its state, and the speed of its particles
when a person wearing glasses enters a warm house after being outside in the cold, their glasses fog up because of
people in warmer climates wear light, loose-fitting clothes to allow their perspiration to
which of the following is an exothermic change: melting, condensation, vaporization, or sublimation
for forms when some of the gaseous water in the air condenses to form tiny drops of liquid water. This occurs when
the air tempurature drops
_________ is a change of state that is often used to cool down football players on the sideline
which of the following best desscribes chicken noodle soop: element, mixture, compund, solution
which of the following is a chemical property: flammability, density, melting point, ductility
how is a mixture different from a compound?
each substance in a mixture keeps most of its characteristic properties
an element can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical or physical means?
neither; it cannot be broken down
what describes compounds?
composed of elements that join in a specific ratio according to their masses
what process could break down a compound into simpler substances: grinding, filtration, electrolysis, distillation
you have a clear liquid. light passes through it and you know that its particles do not separate in a centrifuge. the liquid is most likely a what?
an unknown sample scatters light and passes through a filter without leaving a residue. its most likely a what?
18g of water can be broken down into 2 g of hydrogen and 16 g of oxygen. what is the mass ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in water?
which of the following is NOT a physical property: melting point, density, reactivity with acid, boiling point
reactivity with acid
you add sugar to hot tea and iced tea untill each is saturated. which will have a higher concentration
the hot tea
why does mixing increase the speed at which a solid dissolves?
it causes the solute particles to separate from one another and spread out more quickly among the solvent particles
why does heating increase the speed at which a solid dissolves?
it causes particles to move more quickly, causing them to spread out more quickly
why does crushing a solid increase the speed at which a solid dissolves?
it increases the amount of contact between the solute and the solvent
the smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still be the same substance is a(n)
what describes isotopes?
they are atoms of the same element, they have the same number of protons but different neutrons, they have the same atomic number but have different mass numbers
What describes what happens when an atom becomes an ion with a 2- charge?
the atom gains two electrons
The number of _____ is most important in determining who an atom will bond
electrons in the outermost energy level
Hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen form in different patterns to create ______
sugar, alcohol, citric acid
Atoms and chemical bonds that connect cannot be observed with your eyes, so it is necessary to use a _____
model and theory
The levels farther from the nucleus contain electrons that have ____ levels closer to the nucleus
more energy than
Electrons will enter the second energy level after the ____ electron enters the first energy level
Atoms of elements in Groups 1 and 2 have ____ their group number
the same number of valence electrons as
Atoms of elements in Groups 3-12 have____ their group number
no general rule relating their valence elctrons to
The force of attraction between the nuclei of atoms and the electrons shared by the atoms is a ____
Why are metal ions in a metal held together?
because mettalic bonds extend throughout the metal in all directions
Elements in a family or group in the periodic table often share similar properties because
their atoms have the same number of electrons in their outer energy level
alkali metals are the most reactive of all metals because they have ___ electron(s) in their outter energy level.
Why are alkaline-earth metals less reactive than alkali metals?
It is more difficult for atoms to give away two electrons than to give away one electron
Which of the following is least reactive? a. alkali metal b. alkaline-earth metal c. hologen d. noble gas?
d. noble gas
Why are halogens considered to be the most reactive group of non metals?
Their atoms gain only one electron to have a complete outer level.
Which of the following is a property of a nonmetal? a. poor conductors of electric current; b. very reactive with water; c. malleable; d. shiny
a. poor conductors of electric current
Why is hydrogen placed above group 1 in the periodic table?
Like the atoms of group 1 metals, hydrogen atoms have only 1 electron in their outer level
Transition metals from period 6 that are placed at the bottom of the periodic table are commonly referred to as
Lanthanides and actinides are placed at the bottom of the periodic table
to keep the periodic table from being to wide
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