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202 terms

All The Science Study Guide

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Physical science is the study of
Matter and energy
What is sometimes called "applied science". applies scientific understanding to solve problems. and can refer to objects used to accomplish tasks?
Technology
Who use physical science to explain how planets use carbon dioxide and water to make food?
Botanists
Who can help scientists predict and observation that they might make in the future?
Theories
The field of ______ uses physical science to explain the composition of planets, the light emitted by stars, and the motion of different galaxies in the universe
Astronomy
After forming a hypothesis, you should ______
test your hypothesis
______ is a branch of physical science that studies earthquake waves and rock composition
geology
A(n) ______ uses physical science to explain the nitrogen cycle and the transfer of energy between organisms in a food chain.
ecologist
Physical science is used to study the movement of air masses, weather patterns, and the composition of the atmosphere in the field of ______
meteorology
Scientists usually state ______ in an "If...then..." format
predictions
Analyzing the results of your experiment can be ______
organizing your data into tables and graphs
After concluding that your tests support your hypothesis, you should ______
publish the results so that other scientists can learn from you
The big bang is considered to be ______
a theory
Graduated cylinders are used to measure ______
the volume of liquids
A plastic disk's density is less than water but great than oil. If you put all three into a glass container, where would you see the disk?
Between the water and the oil
Air does NOT have ______
length
All matter has ______, even a rock sitting still.
energy
What tool is used to measure mass?
Balance
The SI unit for temperature is ______
kelvins (K)
Stopwatches, rulers and computers are all ______ that are used to collect data during an experiment
tools
As you explore ______, you learn about the relationship between matter and energy
physical science
Which of the following is NOT a chemical property?
Malleability
Your weight could be expressed in what units?
Pounds and newtons
You accidentally break your pencil in half. This is an example of ______
A physical change
Which of the following statements about density is TRUE?
Density depends on mass and volume
During physical changes, matter always retains its
identity
One way to compare the densities of oil and water is to pour the liquids into a glass container and observe how they ______
separate into layers
The amount of space taken up by an object is known as the object's ______
volume
When a canoe overturns a pocket of air forms inside the canoe because air ______
has volume, takes up space even though it's invisible, and is matter
If you know the volume of the container a gas is in, then you know the ______ of the gas
volume
Over time, you can expect the amount of mass to change in a ______
bowling ball
Gravity affects an object's ______
weight
The SI unit of force is the ______
newton (N)
Given that the mass of the moon is one sixth of the mass of Earth, ______
a man could jump six times higher on the moon than on Earth
Tom's 7year old brother is more difficult to pick up than his 2 year old sister because ______
his brother has more inertia
How do you measure the volume of a screw?
place it in a graduated cylinder and seeing how much liquid it displaces
Does an elephant or bowling ball have more gravitational pull on it?
elephant
Does a golf ball or ping-pong ball have less matter?
ping pong ball
What are boiling points and freezing points?
physical properties
In condensation, boiling, or melting do atoms become more stable?
condensation
What happens when a gas in a balloon increase?
the volume of the gas increase and the speed of particles increase
What is dew an example of?
condensation
the particles of water that evaporate from an open container have _______ than the particles that remain
more speed and higher energy
Why do hydraulic brakes work?
liquids tend to maintain a constant volume
Fulgurite is an example of _____
amorphous solid
The meniscus in a graduated cylindar is caused by ____
surface tension
Is water, tar, lava, or honey least viscous?
water
Mercury, water, or rubbing alcohol has the most surface tension?
mercury
In a gaseous state, particles_____
move independently from one another, move fast enough to break away completely from one another, and have empty space between them
during a change of state, the _____ of a substance changes
energy
What is heat?
a transfer of energy that causes the temp. of a substance to change and can lead to a change of state
What is a melting point?
the temp. at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid
If gallium is 30 degrees and your body heat is 37 degrees, gallium would melt in your hand because ____
energy is transferred from your hand to gallium
Water is a liquid nd iron is a solid at room temp., so iron must have a ____ than water.
higher freezing point
Does pressure decrease as particles move faster?
no
Would solid dry ice be likely to undergo sublimination?
yes
what occurs at 100 degrees celsius?
steam condenses into liquid water
Which of the following is an example of a physical change?
A Popsicle melting
The density of a particular substance is always the same at a give ______
pressure and temperature
A favorable chemical property of iron is its ______
nonreactivity with oil and gasoline
Characteristic properties of an object ______
stay the same regardless of the sample's size
As you clean the kitchen cupboards, you find an unlabeled container of white powder. As you set the container on the countertop, you accidentally spill some of the powder into a cup of vinegar. The mixture fizzes and bubbles, which means that the white powder is ______
baking soda
Although the Statue of Liberty is made of copper (originally an orange-brown color), it is green because the copper has interacted with the substances in the air to form new substances with different properties. This is an example of a ______
chemical change
The importance of gravity came to Isaac Newton in 1666, when he saw an apple fall from a tree. The measurement of gravitational force is expressed in newtons. One newton is approximately the weight of one ______
large apple
Precious metal in catalytic converters on cars change harmful carbon monoxide exhaust fumes to harmless ones. This is an example of a ______ change
chemical
The SI unit for expressing the amount of matter in an object is the
kilogram (kg)
Makin aluminum foil demonstrates ______
malleability
When you add bleach to the water while you are washing your clothes, you are encouraging ______
a chemical change
Dissolving sail in water demonstrates ______
Solubility and physical change
What are the effects of gravity on two objects?
attraction
Protons push away from each other in the nucleus because of the____
electromagnetic force
The ____ overcomes the elctromagnetic force in an atomic nucleus, holding the nucleus together
strong force
Will an atom of aluminum-27 have 13 neutrons?
no
If the atomic number of nickel is 28, how many protons will it have
28
What is the mass number of an atom with 26 protons, 28 neutrons, and 26 electrons
54
An element that is a very reactive gas is most likely a member of the _____
halogens
Is the density of an element found on the periodic table?
no
Mosely rearranged the elements in Mendeleev's periodic table in terms of _____
atomic number
When an element seemed to be missing from the table, Mendeleev would ____
predict the element would be discovered, predict the properites of the element, and leave a gap
What does each square on the periodic table have?
name, chemical symbol, atomic number, atomic mass
The elements in a period on the periodic table become_____
less metallic moving from left to right
What does the zig zag line do?
helps you identify elements as metals, nonmetals, or metalloids
A column of elements is called _____
a period
A number in parentheses on the periodic tbale is the _____
atomic mass
Is lithium, calcium, or titanium more reactive?
lithium
Making aluminum foil demonstrates_____
malleability
when a substance looses or absorbs energy, what can change?
it's tempurature, its state, and the speed of its particles
when a person wearing glasses enters a warm house after being outside in the cold, their glasses fog up because of
condensation
on earth, natural _______ are found in lightning and fire
plasmas
people in warmer climates wear light, loose-fitting clothes to allow their perspiration to
evaporate
if energy is removed from water that is at 1 degree Celcius, the water will
cool down
water from a lake enters the atmosphere through the process of
vaporization
a substance that pours very slowly has a high
viscosity
which is an endothermic change: melting, freezing, or condensation
melting
which of the following is an exothermic change: melting, condensation, vaporization, or sublimation
condensation
for forms when some of the gaseous water in the air condenses to form tiny drops of liquid water. This occurs when
the air tempurature drops
all of the following are endothermic EXCEPT: vaporization, melting, freezing, sublimation
freezing
_________ is a change of state that is often used to cool down football players on the sideline
vaporization
what increases the solubility of a gas in a liquid?
decreasing the temperature
which of the following best desscribes chicken noodle soop: element, mixture, compund, solution
mixture
what would NOT increase the rate at which a solid dissolves?
decreasing the temperature
an element that conducts thermal energy well and is easily shaped is a
metal
which of the following is a chemical property: flammability, density, melting point, ductility
flammability
how is a mixture different from a compound?
each substance in a mixture keeps most of its characteristic properties
the particles in both a suspension and a colloid can
scatter light
when elements form compunds, the elements
react to form a new substance with new properties
what does NOT describe elements?
they can be broken down into simpler substances
an element can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical or physical means?
neither; it cannot be broken down
the 3 major categories of elements are
metals, metalloids, nonmetals
what describes compounds?
composed of elements that join in a specific ratio according to their masses
what process could break down a compound into simpler substances: grinding, filtration, electrolysis, distillation
electrolysis
what element in nature is needed 2 make proteins?
nitrogen
what describes mixtures?
made of 2 or more substances that keep their identities
a material is only a mixture if
you can physically separate the different components
_____ is used to separate hydrogen and oxygen
electrolysis
which is a mixture: carbon dioxide, sodium, chloride, air, ammonia
air
what is often called the universal solvent?
water
soulutions can be
liquids, solids, gases
brass is NOT a(n): solid, alloy, solution, suspension
suspension
a suspension is what type of mixture?
heterogeneous
you have a clear liquid. light passes through it and you know that its particles do not separate in a centrifuge. the liquid is most likely a what?
solution
an unknown sample scatters light and passes through a filter without leaving a residue. its most likely a what?
colloid
an unkown sample scatters light and is separated by a filter. its most likely a what?
suspension
when mixed with other elements, ________ become good conductors
metalloids
18g of water can be broken down into 2 g of hydrogen and 16 g of oxygen. what is the mass ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in water?
1:8
which of the following is NOT a physical property: melting point, density, reactivity with acid, boiling point
reactivity with acid
which is not a solution: brass, air, ocean water, carbon dioxide
carbon dioxide
you add sugar to hot tea and iced tea untill each is saturated. which will have a higher concentration
the hot tea
why does mixing increase the speed at which a solid dissolves?
it causes the solute particles to separate from one another and spread out more quickly among the solvent particles
why does heating increase the speed at which a solid dissolves?
it causes particles to move more quickly, causing them to spread out more quickly
why does crushing a solid increase the speed at which a solid dissolves?
it increases the amount of contact between the solute and the solvent
what is not a colloid: milk, mayonnaise, blood, fog
blood
what is true of protons?
they are part of the nucleus of the atom
what is true of neutrons?
they have a mass of 1 amu
isotopes exist because atoms of the same element can have different numbers of
neutrons
an atom with 79 protons, 79 electrons, and 118 netrons would have a mass number of
197
the smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still be the same substance is a(n)
electron
the size of atoms
vary widely
atoms are composed of
electrons, protons, neutrons
electrons are particles that
are located outside the nucleus and are negatively charged
an atom becomes an ion when
there are unequal numbers of protons and electrons
the atomic number of an atom is the total number of
protons
what describes isotopes?
they are atoms of the same element, they have the same number of protons but different neutrons, they have the same atomic number but have different mass numbers
isotopes have different
mass numbers
atoms that are isotopes of each other
are the same element
What describes what happens when an atom becomes an ion with a 2- charge?
the atom gains two electrons
What type of bonda are malleability and ductility associated with?
metallic
What are of the periodic table do you find elements that easily gain electrons?
on the right side
What kinds of element tends to lose electrons when it forms bonds?
metal
The number of _____ is most important in determining who an atom will bond
electrons in the outermost energy level
What type of element is most likely to gain electrons when it forms bonds?
nonmetal
____ are formed by atoms losing electrons
positive ions
Is a hard brittle texture a metallic property?
no
Hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen form in different patterns to create ______
sugar, alcohol, citric acid
Atoms and chemical bonds that connect cannot be observed with your eyes, so it is necessary to use a _____
model and theory
Electrons in an atom are organized _____
in energy levels
The levels farther from the nucleus contain electrons that have ____ levels closer to the nucleus
more energy than
The first energy level closest to the nucleus can hold how many electrons?
2
Electrons will enter the second energy level after the ____ electron enters the first energy level
second
Most atoms from bonds using only the electrons in their ____ energy level
outermost
Atoms of elements in Groups 1 and 2 have ____ their group number
the same number of valence electrons as
Atoms of elements in Groups 3-12 have____ their group number
no general rule relating their valence elctrons to
Chlorine is in group 17, How many valence electrons are there?
7
Neon is in group 18. How many valance electrons are there?
8
Atoms of ____ do not normally form chemical bonds
noble gases and elements in group 18
The force of attraction between oppositely charger ions is an _____
ionic bond
The force of attraction between the nuclei of atoms and the electrons shared by the atoms is a ____
covalent bond
What is chemical bonding?
the joining of atoms to form new substances
Why would an atom be neutral?
electrons=number of protons
atoms that ____ form positive ions
lose electrons
Why does a sodium ion have a 1+ charge?
it has 1 more proton than electron
How much energy is needed to remove electrons from atoms of metals?
a small amount
What is the suffix used for the names of the negative ions formed when atoms gain electrons?
-ide
What happens when a chlorine atom becomes Cl-?
it gains one electron in the third energy level
____ are commonly represented with electron-dot diagrams
covalent bonds
Why are metal ions in a metal held together?
because mettalic bonds extend throughout the metal in all directions
If an ion has 16 protons and 18 electrons, whats its charge?
2-
Would a ionic compound likely be brittle at room temperature?
yes
What type of bonds are present in table sugar?
covalent bonds
Which compound has a high melting point and boiling point?
ionic compound
Calcium is group 2. how many valence electrons?
2
Does hydrogen have a full set of electrons?
hydrogen
Why can gold be pounded into thin sheets?
metallic bonds
potassium has 19 protons and 18 electrons. what is its charge?
1+
Which class of elements are also called semiconductors?
metalloids
Air is mainly composed of elements that are
nonmentals
Elements in a family or group in the periodic table often share similar properties because
their atoms have the same number of electrons in their outer energy level
alkali metals are the most reactive of all metals because they have ___ electron(s) in their outter energy level.
1
Why are alkaline-earth metals less reactive than alkali metals?
It is more difficult for atoms to give away two electrons than to give away one electron
Which of the following is least reactive? a. alkali metal b. alkaline-earth metal c. hologen d. noble gas?
d. noble gas
Why are halogens considered to be the most reactive group of non metals?
Their atoms gain only one electron to have a complete outer level.
Which of the following is a property of a nonmetal? a. poor conductors of electric current; b. very reactive with water; c. malleable; d. shiny
a. poor conductors of electric current
The group of unreactive nonmetals is called
noble gases
Hydrogen's physical properties are more like the properties of
metals than of nonmetals
Why is hydrogen placed above group 1 in the periodic table?
Like the atoms of group 1 metals, hydrogen atoms have only 1 electron in their outer level
The most abundant elemnt in the universe is
hydrogen
an element found in the ___ makes up about 80 % of the air we breathe
nitrogen group
Transition metals from period 6 that are placed at the bottom of the periodic table are commonly referred to as
Lanthanides
Lanthanides and actinides are placed at the bottom of the periodic table
to keep the periodic table from being to wide
All atoms of actinides
are radioactive
Titanium is a transition metal than can be used in artificial bones
because it is not very reactive
Elements that are composed of atoms that have an atomic number greater than 94 are special because they
are artificial and do not occur in nature