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Wang Yangmin

Prominent Chinese philosopher (1472-1529) who argued that it was possible to achieve a virtuous life by introspection without the extensive education of traditional Confuciansim

Wahhabi Islam

Major Islamic movement led by the Muslim theologian Abd al Wahhab (1703-1792) that advocated an austere lifestyle and strict adherence to the sharia or Islamic law


French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote "Candide". Believed enlightened despot best form of government. Pen name for Fancois Marie-Arouot

Thirty Years' War

(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a battle between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire. 1648- Peace of Westphalia

Taki ONqoy

"dancing sickness" a religious revival movement in central Peru in the 1560's whose members preached the imminent destruction of Christianity and of the Europeans in favor of a renewed Andean golden age.

Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus was founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola to combat the Protestant Reformation by providing strong Catholic leadership to monarchs across Europe. Called Jesuits. education and preaching


The doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam.Brotherhood of all humans and equality with men and women

Matteo Ricci

Italian Jesuit who wanted to convert China to Christianity during the Ming dynasty

scientific revolution

an era between 16th and 18th centuries when scientists began doing research in a new way using the scientific method

Protestant Revolution

Came about because of religious, political, and economic reasons. Religious reasons stemmed from abuses in the Catholic church including fradulent clergy, sale of religious offices, indulgences, and dispensations, different theologies with the church and frauds involving sacred relics

Ninety Five Theses

Document written by Martin Luther and posted on a church door in Germany that listed 95 things that Luther saw wrong with the church

Isaac Newton

English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. His treatise on gravitation, presented in Principia Mathematica (1687), was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple.

Guru Nanak

Founder of Sikhism.

Karl Marx

German journalist and philosopher, founder of the Marxist branch of socialism. He is known for two books: The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (Vols. I-III, 1867-1894).

Martin Luther

German monk and leader of the Protestant Reformation


"research based on evidence" Chinese intellectual movement whose practioners emphasized the importance of evidence and analysis, applied especially towards historical documents

Jesuits in China

recorded the court life and successes of Qing government, Series of Jesuit missionaries in the late 16th and 17th centuries who, inspired by the work of Matteo Ricci, made extraordinary efforts to understand and become a part of the Chinese culture in their efforts to convert the Chinese elites, although with limited success.


French Protestants-minority. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.


Local gods of the Andes

Galileo Galilei

This scientist proved Copernicus' theory that the sun was the center of the solar system and developed the modern experimental method. Eventually suppressed by Catholic Church. Italian

Sigmund Freud

austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis

European Enlightenment

18th century philosophical movement that proposed individual self-interest, rather than Greek virtue or Christian humility, as the motivating factor in human behavior. Knowledge can transform society

Edict of Nantes

1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants. considerable religious freedom


Religious belief that says God created the world and lets it run itself by natural law

Charles Darwin

English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)

Council of Trent

The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.

Nicolaus Copernicus

Proposed the heliocentric theory that put the sun in the center of the earth with the planets traveling around the sun. Polish


(1743-1794) advocated liberal economy, free education, constitutionalism, equal rights for women/all races. Infinitesimals and calculus. Died mysteriously in prison during French Revolution. moving towards improvability

Catholic Counter-Reformation

The movement in the 16th century within the Catholic church to reform itself as a result of the Protestant Reformation. thanks to council of Trent


devotion, central concept in evolution of Hinduism, belief that religious devotion brought the possibility of improving one's karma. dance, music, poetry

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