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Chapter 16: Religion and Science

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Wang Yangmin
Prominent Chinese philosopher (1472-1529) who argued that it was possible to achieve a virtuous life by introspection without the extensive education of traditional Confuciansim
Wahhabi Islam
Major Islamic movement led by the Muslim theologian Abd al Wahhab (1703-1792) that advocated an austere lifestyle and strict adherence to the sharia or Islamic law
Voltaire
French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote "Candide". Believed enlightened despot best form of government. Pen name for Fancois Marie-Arouot
Thirty Years' War
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a battle between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire. 1648- Peace of Westphalia
Taki ONqoy
"dancing sickness" a religious revival movement in central Peru in the 1560's whose members preached the imminent destruction of Christianity and of the Europeans in favor of a renewed Andean golden age.
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus was founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola to combat the Protestant Reformation by providing strong Catholic leadership to monarchs across Europe. Called Jesuits. education and preaching
Sikhism
The doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam.Brotherhood of all humans and equality with men and women
Matteo Ricci
Italian Jesuit who wanted to convert China to Christianity during the Ming dynasty
scientific revolution
an era between 16th and 18th centuries when scientists began doing research in a new way using the scientific method
Protestant Revolution
Came about because of religious, political, and economic reasons. Religious reasons stemmed from abuses in the Catholic church including fradulent clergy, sale of religious offices, indulgences, and dispensations, different theologies with the church and frauds involving sacred relics
Ninety Five Theses
Document written by Martin Luther and posted on a church door in Germany that listed 95 things that Luther saw wrong with the church
Isaac Newton
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. His treatise on gravitation, presented in Principia Mathematica (1687), was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple.
Guru Nanak
Founder of Sikhism.
Karl Marx
German journalist and philosopher, founder of the Marxist branch of socialism. He is known for two books: The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (Vols. I-III, 1867-1894).
Martin Luther
German monk and leader of the Protestant Reformation
Kaozheng
"research based on evidence" Chinese intellectual movement whose practioners emphasized the importance of evidence and analysis, applied especially towards historical documents
Jesuits in China
recorded the court life and successes of Qing government, Series of Jesuit missionaries in the late 16th and 17th centuries who, inspired by the work of Matteo Ricci, made extraordinary efforts to understand and become a part of the Chinese culture in their efforts to convert the Chinese elites, although with limited success.
Huguenots
French Protestants-minority. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
Huacas
Local gods of the Andes
Galileo Galilei
This scientist proved Copernicus' theory that the sun was the center of the solar system and developed the modern experimental method. Eventually suppressed by Catholic Church. Italian
Sigmund Freud
austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis
European Enlightenment
18th century philosophical movement that proposed individual self-interest, rather than Greek virtue or Christian humility, as the motivating factor in human behavior. Knowledge can transform society
Edict of Nantes
1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants. considerable religious freedom
deism
Religious belief that says God created the world and lets it run itself by natural law
Charles Darwin
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
Council of Trent
The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.
Nicolaus Copernicus
Proposed the heliocentric theory that put the sun in the center of the earth with the planets traveling around the sun. Polish
Condorcet
(1743-1794) advocated liberal economy, free education, constitutionalism, equal rights for women/all races. Infinitesimals and calculus. Died mysteriously in prison during French Revolution. moving towards improvability
Catholic Counter-Reformation
The movement in the 16th century within the Catholic church to reform itself as a result of the Protestant Reformation. thanks to council of Trent
Bhakti
devotion, central concept in evolution of Hinduism, belief that religious devotion brought the possibility of improving one's karma. dance, music, poetry