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AP Human Geography: Unit 3

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Acculturation
The modification of the social patterns, traits, or structures of one group or society by contact with those of another.
Animism
The belief that all inanimate objects have a soul or spirit.
Artifacts
An object that was made by an human being, often found as remnants of civilization.
Assimilation
Process in which people of one culture merge into and another culture.
Baha 'i
Started in Iran in 1800s. Bahai is based on two people. Bahai doesn't take the Qur'an literally. They don't believe in angels or devils. heaven or hell are not places they are condition of the soul. All religions come from the same source.
Behaviors
Actions that people may take, are generally based on values and beliefs
Beliefs
Specific statements that people hold to be true, always based on values.
Bilingualism
The ability to speak two languages fluently.
Buddhism
A religion, the world's third major universalizing religion, with 365 million followers, which was founded in India, the religion diffused along the Silk road and water routes.
Confucianism
Ideas of Confucius, emphasizing such values as family, tradition, and mutual respect.
Contagious diffusion
A form of diffusion in which almost all individuals and areas spread outward from the source region are affected.
Creole
forms when a pidgin becomes the first language of a group of speakers
Cultural determinism
cultural influences determine the behaviors and personalities of people
Cultural diffusion
the spread of cultural elements from one society to another
Cultural ecology
Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.
Cultural geography
The subfield of human geography that looks at how cultures vary over space.
Cultural Hearths
Heartland, source area, innovation center, place of origin of a major culture
Cultural landscape
the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape
Cultural relativism
the perspective that a foreign culture should not be judged by the standards of a home culture and that a behavior or way of thinking must be examined in its cultural context
Cultural transmission
the process by which one generation passes culture to the next
Culture complex
A related set of culture traits descriptive of one aspect of a society's behavior or activity (may be assoc. with religious beliefs or business practices).
Culture region
an area in which people have many shared culture traits
Culture system
A collection of interacting elements taken together shape a group's collective identity
Culture trait
A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban.
Daoism
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
Dialect
the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people
Diasporas
the migration of religious or ethnic groups to foreign lands despite their continued affiliation with the land and customs of their origin
Durkheim's sacred and proface
Durkheim believed that everything was a function of society, and so naturally his ideas and views on religion are from the stand point that it too is a function of society, ordinary (defines most objects, events, and experiences) and extraordinary (inspires a sense of awe and reverence)
Eastern Orthodox
derived from the Byzantine Church and adhering to Byzantine rites
Environmental determinism
the view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life including cultural development
Ethnic religion
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated.
Ethnocentrism
belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group
Extinct language
A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used.
Folk culture
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.anyone in the world
Folk Culture region
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
Folk life
the composite culture, both material and non-material, that shapes the lives of folk societies
Geographic region
formed by a culture region representing an entire culture system that intertwines with its locational and environmental circumstances
Hagerstrand, Torste
A famous geographer that wrote about cultural diffusion about the same time as Carl sauer
Hierarchial diffusion
The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places
Hinduism
a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being of many forms and natures
Humanism
the doctrine emphasizing a person's capacity for self-realization through reason
Independent inventions
Process by which humans inovate creativly finding solutions to problems, the term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other
Indo-European language family
Family of languages with the greatest number of speakers, spoken in most of Europe and areas of European settlement and in much of southwestern and southern Asia.
Islam
the religion of Muslims collectively which governs their civilization and way of life
Isoglasses
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate
Judaism
the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud
Language
the mental faculty or power of vocal communication
Language families
Group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin
Language sub-family
group of languages with more commonality than a language family (indicates they have branched off more recently in history)
Lingua franca
a common language used by speakers of different languages
Linguistic fragmentation
Many languages spoken by a small group of people.
Linguistic geography
the study of the geographical distribution of linguistic features
Mahayana
one of two great schools of Buddhist doctrine emphasizing a common search for universal salvation especially through faith alone
Marxism
the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
Material culture
The physical manifestations of human activities; includes tools ,campsites, art, and structures. The most durable aspects of culture
Migrant diffusion
spread of an idea through people, in which the phenomena weakens or dies out at its previous source
Monotheistic religion
a religion with one god
Multilingualism
the ability to communicate in more than two languages
Non-material culture
this type of culture consists of abstract concepts of values, beliefs, and behaviors.
Norms
the rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members
Official language
the language endorsed and recognized by the government as the one that everyone should know and use
Pidgin
an amalgamation of languages that borrows words from several
Popular culture
found in large heterogeneous societies that are bonded by a common culture despite the many differences among the people that share it
Protestants
About 25% of the world's Christians are this. This branch first split from the Catholic Church in the 16th century, and later divided into hundred of denominations. It is strong in North America, Northern Europe, Britain, South Africa, and Australia
Regional identity
Identification with a specific geographic region of a nation.
Religion: Branches, denominations, sects
large and basic divisions within a religion; divisions of branches that unite local groups in a single administrative body; relatively small groups that do not affiliate with more mainstream denominations
Relation diffusion
the process of diffusion in which individuals or populations migrating from the source areas physically carry the innovation or idea to new areas
Roman Catholics
Christians in the West who were under the pope.
Sauer, Carl
focused on diffusion in Agricultural Origins and Dispersals, written in 1952
Shamanism
an ethnic religion in which people follow their shaman, a religious leader and teacher who is believed to be in contact with the supernatural
Shiite
a member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed and rejects the first three caliphs
Sikhism
combines beliefs from Hinduism and Islam, but centers on the teachings of its founder, Guru Nanak.
Standard language
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
Stimulus diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
Sunni
comprise 83% of all Muslims and is the largest branch in the Middle East and Asia
Symbolic landscape
smaller landscapes that symbolize a bigger area or category. iconic landscapes, i.e. the state capitol symbolizes WI. every landscape can symbolize something, but these are focal points for people's attention
Symbolic landscape
carry a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture
Syncretism
the fusion of originally different inflected forms (resulting in a reduction in the use of inflections)
Tantrayana
with its emphasis on magic as well as different meditation techniques, found primarily in Tibet and Mongolia
Theraveda
characterized by a stricter adherence to the original teachings of the Buddha, this branch is strong in Southeast Asia
Time-Distance decay
The declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin or source.
Toponymy
the study of place names, a special interest of liguistic geography
Traditional religion
an integral part of a local culture and society
Transculturation
cultural borrowing that occurs when different cultures of approximately equal complexity and technological level come into close contact
Universalizing religion
attempts to be global in its appeal to people, wherever they may live in the world, not just to those in one location. The three main ones are Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism