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fibromellar carcinoma

a subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma that is found in adolescents and young adults without coexisting liver disease

core biopsy

a procedure in which a small piece of tissue is removed from an organ in order to examine it under a microscope. usually done to rule out malignancy of a tumor.


a malignant (cancerous) growth in one of the ducts that carries bile from the liver to the small intestine. also known as bile duct cancer

fine needle aspiration

a procedure in which a thin needle is placed into a tissue or organ. cells are acquired by drawing them up into a syringe


a benign tumor composed of fat


term that means "demonstrating excessive color flow when evaluated with color doppler."

microbubble enhanced sonography

the injection of a contrast (which consists of microbubbles in a suspension) for the purpose of enhancing the visualization of the vascularity of a mass on sonography


a true neoplasm of vascular origin, characterized by proliferation of endothelial cells in and about the vascular lumen; it is usually considered to be intermediate in grade between hemangioma and hemangiosarcoma but sometimes is used to denote the latter.

focal nodular hyperplasia

known as FNH, this is the 2nd most common benign mass of the liver


a benign tumor composed of blood vessels

hepatocellular carcinoma

accounts for the majority of all primary liver cancers. this type of cancer occurs more often in men than women, usually in people 50-60 years old. the disease is more common in parts of Africa and Asia than in north or south America and Europe. most common cause in America is alcoholic cirrhosis.

contrast agent

a substance injected into the blood stream that increases the contrast between tumors and normal liver tissue, making them more visible


a benign tumor composed of blood vessel endothelium, smooth muscle tissue, and fat.


single-photon emission computed tomography (a special type of CT scan)

karposis sarcoma

a rare type of cancer seen in patients with immune deficiency. mainly seen in patients with AIDS.


a fungal infection by candida albicans (also known as thrush)


this is stored energy. it is made primarily by the liver and the muscles, but can also be made by glycogenesis within the brain and stomach. it is stored in the liver and when energy is needed it is converted into glucose and released in the blood.


refers to bacterial infections that make pus.

normal variant

an unusual property of an organ or tissue (ie shape, size, or form) which usually does not cause medical problems for the patient.

Liver Function Tests

include direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, serum protein, albumin, beta globulin, Alkaline Phosphate (ALP), Alpha Fetal Protein (AFP), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST)/Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)/Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT), cholestero, Lactic Dehydrogenase (LDH), and Prothrombin Time (PTT)

echinococcus granulosis

this is the parasite that causes hydatid disease (tapeworm 3-6mm long) most common in sheep and cattle herding countries.

situs inversus

a variant or anomaly in which the organs are located (by varying degrees) on the opposite side of the body

autosomal dominant traits

traits that are expressed if present on one gene. only one parent has to have the trait to have a child with the same trait

surgical jaundice

this type of jaundice occurs due to an obstruction of bile flow out of the liver which causes it to spill over into the blood.

liver flukes

Flatworms that can occur in bile ducts, gallbladder, and liver parenchyma. they feed on blood. adult flukes produce eggs which are passed into the intestine. it respires anaerobically. its life cycle contain two hosts: sheep and snail.


a bacteria that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms


a shunt used in patients with portal hypertension. it connects the right portal vein to the right hepatic vein in order to relieve pressure in the portal vein system.


a collection of pus (dead neutrophils) that has accumulated in a cavity formed by the tissue in which the pus resides on the basis of an infections process (usually caused by bacteria or parasites or other foreign materials.


a benign, focal malformation that resembles a neoplasm in the tissue of its origin. this is not a malignant tumor, and it grows at the same rate as the surrounding tissues. it is composed of tissue elements normally found at that site, but which are growing in a disorganized mass. they occur in many different parts of the body and are most often asymptomatic and undetected unless seen on an image take for another reason.


an artifact commonly seen in the presence of gas. It appears as bright white vertical lines on the US images. See in cases of biliary hamartoma from the cholesterol crystals that are trapped in the mass during development.

diffuse hepatocellular disease

a disease that involves the entire liver


a type of abdominal wall defect in which the intestines, liver, and occasionally other organs remain outside the abdomen in a sac because of a defect in the development of the muscles of the abdominal wall

incubation period

the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical, or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent

compensatory hypertrophy

the enlargement of an organ (or part of an organ) due to damage or agenesis of an organ (or part of an organ)


low blood sugar


a discrepancy or deviation from an established appearance or shape. these may eventually cause problems for the patient.

autosomal recessive traits

traits not expressed unless the gene is present on both autosomal chromosomes. both parents must be carriers to produce a child with this type of hereditary disease.


enlarged distended veins


elevated blood sugar

medical jaundice

this type of jaundice occurs due to hepatocellular disease


failure of an organ to develop during embryonic growth and development


re-opening of a vein such as the paraumbilical vein in the liver

target lesion

a bull's eye lesion composed of rings of varying echogenicity resembling a bull's eye pattern

diaphragmatic slip

occurs when the diaphragm invaginates into the liver during embryological development and remains stuck there

cavernous transformation

multiple tube-like structures appearing around the portal vein which represent collaterals in the presence of portal vein obstruction or impedance to portal vein flow into the liver


an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids. it is the main constituent of vegetable oil and animal fats


a parasite commonly known as blood-flukes and bilharzia, includes flatworms which are responsible for the msot significant parasitic infection of humans by causing the disease schistosomiasis.

collateral circulation

an alternate route for blood flow when the primary artery or vein is blocked

accessory fissure

an in-folding of peritoneum into the liver.

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