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41 terms

Chapter 4 Social Structure and Social Interaction

STUDY
PLAY
Macrosociology
focuses on broad features of society
Social Interaction
What people do when they come together
Social Structure
refers to the typical patterns of a group such as its usual relationships between men and women or students and teachers
Social class
Large numbers of people who have similar amounts of income and education and who work at a jobs that are roughly comparable in prestige
Status
in a different way to refer to the position that someone occupies
Status set
to refer to all the structures or positions that you occupy
Ascribed status
is involuntary
Achieved status
in contrast are voluntary
Status symbol
signs that identify a status
Master status
cuts across your other status
Status inconsistency
Although the status usually fir together fairly well some people have a contradiction or mismatch between their statuses
Roles
the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status were already set up for you
Socialization
is through what we usually want to do what our roles indicate is appropriate
group
consists of people who interact with one another and who feel that the values interest and norms they have in common are important
Social institutions
the standard or usual ways that a society meets its basic needs vitally affect your life
Society
which consists of people who share a culture and a territory
Hunting and gathering societies
have a few social divisions and little inequality
Shaman
an individual thought to be able to influence spiritual forces, but shaman must hep obtain food
pastoral societies
are based on the pasturing of animals (herding)
Horticultural Societies
are based on the cultivation of plans by the use of hand tools (gardening)
Agricultural society
people developed cities and what is popular known as "culture" activities such as art, music, literature, and architecture
Industrial society
was greater than anything that preceded it and also was its social inequality
Postindustrial ( information) society
the change is so vast that sociologists say that a new type of society has emerged
Biotech society
The economy will center on applying and alternating genetic structures
Social integration
Their members being united by shared values and other social bonds
Mechanical solidarity
for smaller groups
Division of labor
As societies get larger,they develop different kinds of work
Organic solidarity
Durkheim called this new form of solidarity based on interdependence
Gemeinschaft
"intimate community" to describe village life the type of society in which everyone knows everyone else
Gesellschaft
"impersonal association"
Body Language
the ways people use their bodies to give messages to others
Dramaturgy
Goffman added a new twist to microsociology when he recast the theatrical
Impression management
Goffman called these efforts to manage the impressions that others receive
Role performance
The particular emphasis or interpretation that we give a role our "style"
Role conflict
which family, friendship, students, and work roles come crashing together
Teamwork
two or more people working together to help a performance come off as planned
Face-saving behavior
doesn't come off quite right the team might try to save
Ethnomethodology
is the study of how people use commonsense understanding to make sense of life
Background assumptions
your ideas about the way life is and the way things ought to work
Thomas theorem
W.I. becomes known as the definition of the situation
Social construction of reality
social groups to which we belong, holds particular views of life