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Louis Armstrong

-born in New Orleans (Kornovsky family)
-possessed a larger tone, wider range, and better command of the trumpet than most early players
-improvisations were very well constructed (an architect that built dramatic intensity)
-rhythm: abandoned stiffness of rag-time, employed swing eighth note patterns, used "rhythmic displacement"
-showed another way other than the New Orleans collective improvisation -->demonstrated solo improvisations
-one of the first great soloists in Jazz history

**-affirms that the basis of jazz is going to be a blues tonality
-blues as a feeling and blues as a tonality (b3 and b5: 1 b3 4 b5 5 b7)
-he affirmed the swung eight note as the currency of jazz music

-blues tonality, swung eighth, well organized solos

Jelly roll Morton

composer, pianist, band leader
one of the first New Orleans Natives to be recorded in Chicago
-devised a piano style that featured horn-like lines and long short, strong weak eighth note patters that swung more than ragtime
-blended New Orleans improvisational approaches with elaborately arranged, written passages (one of the first to blend improvisation and composition)

chimes blues

the record that Joe Oliver and Louis Armstrong produced
-hints at the future of Jazz
-Armstrong got a solo

West End Blues

written by Joe King Oliver (helped out young musicians)
-established Louis as the first great solo genius
-new concept of a fanfare
-pitch smears by trombone player
-12 bar blues
-improvised duet between Louis (voice -response -scat singing -vocalizing using non-sensical text) and Clarinet -call and response
-shows the famous "trumpet style" of Earl Hines -he also has LH legato chording in stride style while RH has flowery figures
-trumpet line= double time -drum plays ride rhythms on a "bock-a-da-bock" (cymbal tongs)

Wolverine Blues

-written by Jelly-roll morton (New Orleans style composed)
-one of the most swinging songs of early jazz
-stride style piano playing in LH (octave jumps)
-form and piano style show ragtime influence but swinging rhythms and improvisational sophistication extend beyond that
-stop time solo break: band stops playing, improviser continues to play) -->LH stops playing so RH has a solo
-voicing in octaves in the piano
-syncopation is used --> bass drum emphasizes beat one and 3 cymbal accents 2 and 4 (back beat)
-"Choke" technique by drummer (strikes cymbal then grabs it to stop ringing)

You've got to be modernistic

by James p. Johnson
-rhythmic displacement
-polyrhythms: 3 against 4
-played as though he was 4 people
-stride piano playing (left hand jumps between octaves and right hand is highly virtuosic, generally improvised piano playing and changes popular show tunes)
-bass notes on beats 1 and 3, chords on beats 2 and 4
--James P Johnson (the father of stride piano playing, was blind, got rid of stiff rag rhythms, more harmonically sofisticated than rag-time)
-orchestral piano playing
-trio section: like the third section of a march -in each trio section, Johnson selects a melodic idea and varies it

Hotter than that

-by Louis Armstrong
-blue note
-swing eighth noes (6/8 fitting into a 4/4 time signature)
-solo break (the tempo is maintained and the passage of chords remain in effect but no explicit statement of the beat or chords from piano and banjo)
-Armstrong solos= architecture to them
-polymetric (2 meters) during scat singing passages -hemolia against guitar
-vocal slides and bends
-raspy tone quality

Singing the Blues

-Bix Beiderbecke (cornett) and Frankie Trumbauer (C melody saxophone, slow vibrato, pale lighter tone quality, influenced lester young)
-A B A C song form
-collective improvisation
-musical devise used: "break": a momentary interruption of the accompaniment in which the soloist plays
-->formal (at the end of theme or mid-point of theme) like a turn around when it happens at the end (a series of notes that signals the end of one phrase going into the next) -rhythmic aspect: beat keeps going (implying the time even through it isn't going on)


based on marches (LH is more march-like)
form is very important
decidedly unimprovised
stricter rhythm
less chances are taken

bix beiderbecke

bell-like sound
middle register mainly
rhythm= closer to ragtime
Davenport Iowa
minimalist approach (less dramatic)
only played cornett

Sunflower slow drag

by Scott Joplin (leading composer of ragtime piano music)
--ragtime vs. stride: LH much more march like (ragtime) -more stiff, not as free, less chances are taken
-example of ragtime piano (put together like a military march and had rhythms borrowed from African American banjo music) -loud accents fall between the beats (syncopated rhythm)
-decidedly unimprovised and lacks swung rhythm
-ragtime= a forerunner of jazz

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