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20 terms

Chapter 13: RNA and Protein Synthesis

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RNA
Ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA
mRNA
type of RNA that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
tRNA
type of RNA that carries each amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis
transcription
synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template
RNA polymerase
enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcription using a DNA strand as a template
intron
sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein
exon
expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
three diferences between RNA and DNA
the sugar strand in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose, RNA is generally single-stranded and not double-stranded, and RNA contains uracil in the place of thymine
polypeptide
long chain of amino acids that makes proteins
genetic code
collection of codons of mRNA, each of which directs the incorporation of a particular amino acid into a protein during protein synthesis
codon
group of three nucleotide bases in mRNA that specify a particular amino acid to be incorporated into a protein
translation
process by which the sequence of bases of an mRNA is converted into the sequence of amino acids of a protein
anticodon
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to the three bases of a codon of mRNA
gene expression
process by which a gene produces its product and the product carries out its function
mutation
change in the genetic material of a cell
point mutation
gene mutation in which a single base pair in DNA has been changed
frameshift mutation
mutation that shifts the "reading frame" of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
mutagen
chemical or physical agents in the environment that interact with DNA and may cause a mutation
polyploidy
condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes
poly a-tail
a long chain of adenine nucleotides that is added to a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule during RNA processing to increase the stability of the molecule.