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Ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA


type of RNA that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell


type of RNA that carries each amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis


synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template

RNA polymerase

enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcription using a DNA strand as a template


sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein


expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein

three diferences between RNA and DNA

the sugar strand in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose, RNA is generally single-stranded and not double-stranded, and RNA contains uracil in the place of thymine


long chain of amino acids that makes proteins

genetic code

collection of codons of mRNA, each of which directs the incorporation of a particular amino acid into a protein during protein synthesis


group of three nucleotide bases in mRNA that specify a particular amino acid to be incorporated into a protein


process by which the sequence of bases of an mRNA is converted into the sequence of amino acids of a protein


group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to the three bases of a codon of mRNA

gene expression

process by which a gene produces its product and the product carries out its function


change in the genetic material of a cell

point mutation

gene mutation in which a single base pair in DNA has been changed

frameshift mutation

mutation that shifts the "reading frame" of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide


chemical or physical agents in the environment that interact with DNA and may cause a mutation


condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes

poly a-tail

a long chain of adenine nucleotides that is added to a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule during RNA processing to increase the stability of the molecule.

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