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a group of people who work together to achieve some specific purpose.


the pursuit of organizational goals efficiently and effectively by integrating the work of people through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the organization's resources.


--the means; to use resources--people, money, raw materials, and the like--wisely and cost effectively.


--the ends; means to achieve results, to make the right decisions and to successfully carry them out so that they achieve the organization's goals.

Competitive advantages

the ability of an organization to produce goods or services more effectively than competitors do, thereby outperforming them.


finding ways to deliver new or better goods or services.


the global network of independently operating but interconnected computers, linking hundreds of smaller networks around the world.


the buying and selling of goods or services over computer networks


using the internet to facilitate every aspect of running a business.


text messages and documents transmitted over a computer network

Project management software

programs for planning and scheduling the people, costs, and resources to complete a project on time.


computerized collections of interrelated files


work from home or remote locations using a variety of information technologies


using video and audio links along with computers to let people in different locations see, hear, and talk with one another.

collaborative computing

using state of the art computer software and hardware, will help people work better together.

knowledge management

the implementing of systems and practices to increase the sharing of knowledge and information throughout an organization.


is defined as economic development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Management Process (4 management functions)

planning, organizing, leading, and controlling


defined as setting goals and deciding how to achieve them.


arranging tasks, people and other resources to accomplish the work.


motivating, directing, and otherwise influencing people to work hard to achieve the organization's goals.


defined as monitoring performances, comparing it with goals, and taking corrective action as needed.

Top managers

long-term decisions about the overall direction of the organization and establish the objectives, policies, and strategies for it.

Middle Managers

implement the policies and plans of the top managers above them and supervise and coordinate the activities of the first line managers below them.

First-line managers

make short term operating decisions, directing the daily tasks of non-managerial personnel.

Functional Manager

responsible for just one organizational activity

general manager

responsible for several organizational activities.

Interpersonal roles

managers interact with people inside and outside their work units

Informational roles

as monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson--managers receive and communicate information with other people inside and outside of the organization.

Decisional roles

managers use information to make decisions to solve problems or take advantage of opportunities.

The 4 decision making roles are:

entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator.

The 3 interpersonal roles are:

interpersonal, information, decisional


the process of taking risks to try to create a new enterprise


someone who sees a new opportunity for a product or service and launches a business to try to realize it.


someone who works inside an existing organization who sees an opportunity for a product or service and mobilizes the organization's resources to try to realize it.

internal locus of control

the belief that you control your own destiny

Technical, conceptual, and human

Researcher Robert Katz found that through education and experience managers acquire three principal skills:

Technical skills

consist of the job-specific knowledge needed to perform well in a specialized field.

Conceptual skills

consist of the ability to think analytically, to visualize an organization as a whole and understand how the parts work together.

Human skills

consist of the ability to work well in cooperation with other people to get things done

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