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Religious & Philosophical Movements


separated ones

Pias Ones


oral traditions of the rabbis


came mostly from the middle class


Many Scribes

were Pharisees

only accepted the authority of the law of Moses


rejected supernatural ideas


disappeared from history, in 70 A.D.


grew out of the Hasidim


Many scholars believe that they were the religious group that produced the Dead Sea Scrolls


Jewish revolutionaries; dedicated overthrow Roman rule


descendants of those from the northern kingdom of Israel


ethnically and religiously segregated


own version of the Pentateuch


were the masses of common people in Israel

people of the land

no formal membership

people of the land

Pharisees looked down on

people of the land

Jews were those who lived outside of the land of Israel

Jews of the diaspora

retained both their Jewish faith and Jewish culture


retained their Jewish faith, but took on Greek culture


most famous Hellenistic Jew

Philo of Alexandria

center of Jewish life


1st general observation of the Jewish World

the people were devoted to one God and to his law

2nd general observation of the Jewish World

Many Jews longed for a Messiah

3rd general observation of the Jewish World

Most Jews were influenced by Greek culture

4th general observation of the Jewish World

Before the destruction of the temple, Judaism was diverse.

were no longer received received religious devotion from most people

the old gods

usually included a basic myth, public festivals, and secret initiations and rites

Mystery religions

Demeter, Isis, Dionysus, Cybele, and Mithra

Mystery religions

more popular gods in the 1st century (e.g.. god of healing)


considered a patriotic duty, a pledge of allegiance

emperor worship

Philosophy: pleasure


Philosophy: fate


Philosophy: personal freedom, ridiculed


Philosophy: individual truth


material world was evil; spiritual world was good


person at death move from earth to heaven...secret knowledge and passwords


were full converts

Gentile proselytes

practiced Judaism...unwilling to undergo the full law


1st general observation of the Gentile World

people were ready for change

2nd general observation of the Gentile World

people cared about their personal destiny

3rd general observation of the Gentile World

people were becoming less ethnic and more universal in their religious beliefs

4th general observation of the Gentile World

people saw little need to be devoted to just one god

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