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Poland, developed heliocentric theory, "On the Revolution of Heavenly Bodies"


Netherlands, recorded movements of planets, influenced Kepler


Germany, discovered elliptical pattern and proved Copernicus right

Galileo Galilei

Italy, law of the pendulum, discovered weight has nothing to do with the speed of falling and gravity


England, founded scientific method, encouraged experimenting instead of accepting ideas


France, "I think, therefore I am" analytical geometry, father of modern philosophy


England, theory of gravity, laws of motion


Netherlands, eyeglass maker who created the microscope

van Leeuwenhoek

Netherlands, used the microscope to observe bacteria in tooth shavings and observed red blood cells


Italy, student of Galileo, developed 1st mercury barometer to measure pressure and predict weather


Netherlands, made 1st mercury thermometer in glass, water freezes at 32 degrees


Sweden, created mercury thermometer that said water freezes at 0 degrees


Ancient Greece, dissected animals to study anatomy and assumed humans are the same


Belgium, proves Galen wrong, dissected human corpses, "On the Fabric of the Human Body"

W. Harvey

England, discovered heart was a pump, "On the motion of the heart and blood"


England, 1st vaccine, germs fro cattle to prevent small pox


Ireland, 1st to use the scientific method in chemistry, his law explains how temperature, gas and pressure affect each other


England, discovered oxygen but did not name it


France, named oxygen

Mary Astell

England, "A Serious Proposal to the Ladies", addressed lack of education for women and the different roles in a marriage, feminist pioneer

Mary Wollstonecraft

England, "A Vindication of the Rights of Women" argued women should be doctors and nurses

Marie-Therese Geoffrin

France, hosted Paris salons, leading figure in French Enlightenment


Austria, ages 5-35 wrote 600 musical works, 5 first musical compositions, age 12 first opera


Austria, musician, composer, famous for 5th and 9th symphonies


England, Author of 1st English novel, Pamela


England, Author of "Robinson Crusoe"


France, author of 1st Encyclopedia

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