Chapter 8 APUSH Vocab
Terms in this set (50)
TJ's Inaugural Address, 1801
Celebrated the most important election ever held in the history of the world. Jefferson believed that election was as consequential as the Declaration of Independence, for it marked the first time in modern history that a government surrendered its power via popular election.
were the largest group of Southern white farmers; they often hired slaves for labor, concentrated in upland regions, and were independent farmers.
TJ's slave/black mistress
Louisiana Purchase, 1803
The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Napoleon for $15 million. Jefferson was interested in the territory because it would give the U.S. the Mississippi River and New Orleans (both were valuable for trade and shipping) and also room to expand. Napoleon wanted to sell because he needed money for his European campaigns and because a rebellion against the French in Haiti had soured him on the idea of New World colonies. The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose construction to justify the purchase.
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution."
Maine would enter Union as a free state; slavery in the lands of the Louisiana Territory north of the 36 30' parallel line would be permitted; Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state; the Senate would remain balanced between northern and southern interests
the Shawnee leader who rallied the tribes against white intrusion of 1811
Treaty of Ghent
ended the War of 1812; stated that boundaries from before the war would remain unchanged
War of 1812 Results
strengthened American industrial and manufacturing production; virtually destroyed the Federalist party as a credible opposition to the Republican Party; restored a sense of pride in most Americans and led to a wave of nationalism; destroyed the power of the NA tribes in the NW territory
War of 1812 Causes
Chesapeake-Leopard Incident; British impressments of American seamen from American ships on the high seas; concerns of western Americans that the NA raids they suffered were being carried out with British encouragement; the Congressional "War Hawks" desired the annexation of Canada
Revolution of 1800
claimed for the first time that the Supreme Court could declare an act of Congress to be unconstitutional
Treasury secretary in Jefferson's administration; he favored limited government and reduced the federal debt by cutting spending.
pirates off the north coast of Africa in the Mediterranean. The pirates would charge ransom for allowing ships passage. TJ approved a blockade of the pirates in 1803, and later secured a treaty with the North African state of Tripoli. The US attacked pirates from other nations several times, and finally, in 1815 secured freedom from tribute from the rest of the North African nations
Federal Judiciary Act of 1801
laws passed by the Federalists in their last months in office. The law expanded on the number of federal judgeships, which were filled with good Federalists. It also reduced the number of Supreme Court justices upon the next resignation, effectively preventing TJ from appointing justices to the Supreme Court
The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
Virginia lawyer and politician whom President Adams made chief justice of the Supreme Court; his legal decisions helped shape the role of the Supreme Court in American government.
the power of the Supreme Court to review laws and determine if they are constitutional
Lewis and Clark Expedition
tj ordered them to explore the land of the louisiana purchase
Shoshone woman who served as guide and interpreter on the Lewis and Clark expedition.
Election of 1804
Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson and VP George Clinton were victorious over Federalist Charles C. Pickeny and his VP Rufus King.
Aaron Burr and conspiracy
New York lawyer and vice-presidential candidate in 1796; he became Jefferson's vice president in 1801 after the House of Representatives broke a deadlock in the Electoral College.
An abbreviation of the Latin tertium quid, meaning "third party" and used to denote an anti-Madison part of the Democratic-Republican Party between 1805 and 1811.
Congressman from Virginia, serving in the House of Representatives at various times between 1799 and 1833, the Senate and also as Minister to Russia.After serving as President Thomas Jefferson's spokesman in the House, he broke with Jefferson in 1803 and became the leader of the "Old Republican" or "Quids."
the act of seizing men and forcing them to serve the government in, for example, the navy
the british tried to impress american sailors in american waters
Embargo Act of 1807
act passed by Congress that forbade commerce with any foreign power. It was repealed in 1809.
Jefferson set in motion his idea of "peaceable coercion" by encouraging Congress to pass the Embargo Act of 1807, which stopped all exports of American goods.
1809 law reopening trade with all nations except France and Britain and authorizing the president to reopen trade with them if they lifted restrictions on American shipping.
Americans, especially the Republicans entering into Congress in 1810 from the West, who were eager to declare war on Britain in 1812
John C. Calhoun
Congressman from South Carolina who was a leader of the War Hawks and the author of the official declaration of war in 1812.
An American lawyer, politician, and skilled orator who represented Kentucky in both the United States Senate and House of Representatives. Clay was a dominant figure in both the First and Second Party systems. As a leading war hawk in 1812, he favored war with Britain and played a significant role in leading the nation to war in the War of 1812.
known as the prophet he tried to fight the whites but got killed in the fallen timbers
William Henry Harrison
won the election of 1840 with the slogan tippecanoe and tyler too
Burning of Washington D.C.
An attack during the War of 1812 between British forces and those of the United States of America.
Francis Scott Key
Author of "The Star-Spangled Banner," which chronicles the British bombardment of Fort McHenry in 1814; Key's poem, set to music, became the official U.S. national anthem in 1931.
Battle of New Orleans
Battle in January 1815 in which American troops commanded by Andrew Jackson destroyed the British force attempting to seize New Orleans.
a meeting of NE Federalists who proposed amenments to the Constitution. The amendments would have made it more difficult for the nat'l gov. to declare war and excerise other powers. Public reaction to these amendments effectively destroyed the Federalist Party
The fifth President of the United States. In 1790 he was elected to the Senate of the first United States Congress, where he joined the Jeffersonians. He helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. During the War of 1812, Monroe held the critical roles of Secretary of State and the Secretary of War under President James Madison.
"Era of Good Feelings"
a time when the nation seemed united in achieving national goals and when there was a temporary absence of partisan and sectional bickering
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
A landmark decision from the United States Supreme Court dealing with the application of the Contract Clause of the United States Constitution to private corporations. The decision settled the nature of public versus private charters and resulted in the rise of the American business corporation and the free American enterprise system.
McCullough v. Maryland
a case in which the Supreme Court upheld Congress' use of implied powers in creating the US Bank
John Quincy Adams
An American statesman who served as the sixth President of the United States. He was a member of the Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, and later Anti-Masonic and Whig parties. Adams played an important role in negotiating key treaties, most notably the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812.
organized the border between the usa and britian in the north, The Treaty demilitarized the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, where many British naval armaments and forts still remained, and laid the basis for a demilitarized boundary between the US and British North America This agreement was indicative of improving relations between the United States and Britain during this time period following the end of the War of 1812.
treaty in which Spain gave the US East FL. In return, the US agreed to pay $5mil. in debts that US citizens claiemd were owed by the Spanish gov. Spanish gov. also agreed to recognize the US' ownership of the Louisiana Purchase, while the US agreed that TX was not part of the Louisiana Territory
The Monroe Doctrine
declaration by Monroe stating that European countries should no longer interfere with the countries of the Western Hemisphere. It also stated that the US would stay out of internal European affairs
Panic of 1819
economic depression from 1819 to 1823 that devastated the US economy
refusal to trade with a certain country or group
seventh president of the United States; General who defeated the Creeks at Horseshoe Bend in 1814 and the British at New Orleans in 1815; he later became the seventh president of the United States.
Marbury v. Madison
Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States under Article III of the Constitution
most often connected to the presidency of Thomas Jefferson. It was President Jefferson's approach to trying to get European countries to respect the rights of the United States and its shipping. In 1807, France and Great Britain were at war