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Comparative Politics Mid-Term
Terms in this set (88)
Purchasing power parity (PPP)
A statistical tool that attempts to estimate the buying power of income across different countries by using prices in the United States as a benchmark.
A political-economic system in which all wealth and property are shared so as to eliminate exploitation, oppression, and, ultimately, the need for political institutions such as the state. A political ideology that advocates such a system.
A political view that does not have a consistent ideological foundation, but that emphasizes hostility toward elites and established state and economic institutions and favors greater power in the hands of the public.
The transfer of state-owned property to private ownership.
The interaction between the forces of supply and demand that allocates resources.
Social Democracy/ Socialism
A political ideology that advocates a system in which freedom and equality are balanced through the state's management of the economy and the provision of social expenditures.
The basic norms for political activity in a society.
A statistical formula that measures the amount of inequality in a its scale ranges from 0 to 100, where a corresponds to perfect equality and 100 perfect inequality.
Research that works from a hypothesis that is then tested against data.
Research that works from case studies in order to generate hypotheses.
A state so weak that its political structures collapse, leading to anarchy and violence.
A theory asserting that as societies developed, they would take on a set of common characteristics, including democracy and capitalism.
The principle that the economy should be "allowed to do" what it wishes; a liberal system of minimal state interference in the economy.
Basic institutions that define a society.
The ability of the state to wield its power independently of the public.
Pride in one's people and the belief that they have a unique political destiny.
Legitimacy that accepts aspects of politics because they have been institutionalized over a long period of time.
Compelling behavior by threatening harm.
The leadership or elite in charge of running the state.
The issue that cause and effect are not often clear, in that variables may be both cause and effect in relationship to one another.
The relationship between political and economic institutions in a particular country and the policies and outcomes they create.
A nontariff barrier that limits the quantity of a good that may be imported into a country.
The fundamental rules and norms of politics, embodying long-term goals regarding individual freedom and collective equality, where power should reside, and the use of that power.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
The total market value of all goods and services produced by a country over a period of one year.
The study of the interaction between states and markets.
A research error where cases are chosen based on effects rather than causes, which can lead to inaccurate conclusions about correlation or causation.
A group of people bound together by a common set of political aspirations, the most important of which is self-government.
Approach that assumes that individuals weigh the costs and benefits and make choices to maximize their benefits.
A system of production based on private property and free markets.
The struggle in any group for power that will give one or more persons the ability to make decisions for the larger group.
A political-economic system in which national economic power is paramount and the domestic economy is viewed as an instrument that exists primarily to serve the needs of the state.
Social Democracy/ Socialism
A political-economic system in which freedom and equality are balanced through the state's management of the economy and the provision of social expenditures.
A state that is able to fulfill basic tasks, such as defending territory, making and enforcing rules, collecting taxes, and managing the economy.
Human Development Index (HDI)
A statistical tool that attempts to evaluate the overall wealth, health, and knowledge of a country's people.
The organization that maintains a monopoly of legitimate force over a given territory.
Description of one's views regarding the speed and methods with which political changes should take place in a given society.
A rule or order that sets the boundaries of a given procedure.
An individual's relationship to the state, wherein citizens swear allegiance to that state and the state in return is obligated to provide rights to those citizens.
A system of social democratic policy making in which a limited number of organizations representing business and labor work with the state to set economic policy.
A conflict in which one or more groups within a country develop clear aspirations for political independence, clashing with others as a result.
A conflict in which different ethnic groups struggle to achieve certain political or economic goals at each other's expense.
Goods or services that are owned by an individual or group, privately or publicly.
The basic values held by an individual about the fundamental goals of politics or the ideal balance of freedom and equality.
A value whereby an institution is accepted by the public as right and proper, thus giving it authority and power.
A movement within political science during the 1950s and 1960s to develop general theories about individual political behavior that could be applied across all countries.
The study and comparison of domestic politics across countries.
A tax on imported goods.
Study through an in-depth investigation of a limited number of cases.
A sense of belonging to a nation and a belief in its political aspirations.
Term used to refer to state, government, regime, and the people who live within that political system.
A state's legal authority to carry out actions or policies within a territory independently from external actors or internal rivals.
An ideology and political system that favors a limited state role in society and the economy, and places a high priority on individual political and economic freedom.
Pride in one's state.
A political ideology that asserts the superiority and inferiority of different groups of people and stresses a low degree of both freedom and equality in order to achieve a powerful state.
A process in which political power is "sent down" to lower levels of state and government.
A research approach that uses applied mathematics to model behavior in strategic situations where an individual's success depends on the choices of others. Built upon assumptions of rational choice.
A political attitude that favors evolutionary transformation
A political ideology that stresses the elimination of the state and private property as a way to achieve both freedom and equality for all.
The ability of one country to produce a particular good or service more efficiently relative to other countries' efficiency in producing the same good or service.
Complex human organization, a collection of people bound by shared institutions that define how human relations should be conducted.
The ability of an individual to act independently, without fear of restriction or punishment by the state or other individuals or groups in society.
A state in which most political power exists at the national level, with limited local authority.
The means by which social scientists make comparisons across cases.
Those with a political attitude that is skeptical of change and supports the current order.
Those with a political attitude that favors dramatic, often revolutionary change.
A political ideology that advocates a system in which all wealth and property are shared so as to eliminate exploitation, oppression, and, ultimately, the need for political institutions such as the state.
Nontariff Regulatory Barriers
Policies and regulations used to limit imports through methods other than taxation.
An organization or activity that is self-perpetuating and valued for its own sake.
Study through statistical data from many cases.
Rational Legal Legitimacy
Legitimacy based on a system of laws and procedures that are highly institutionalized.
Legitimacy built on the force of ideas embodied by an individual leader.
Someone who seeks to restore the institutions of a real or imagined earlier order.
Goods, provided or secured by the state, available to society and which no private person or organization can own.
A shared material standard of individuals within a community, society, or country.
State provision of public benefits, such as education, health care, and transportation.
A period of falling prices and values for goods, services, investments, and wages.
The ability of the state to wield power to carry out basic tasks, such as defending territory, making and enforcing rules, collecting taxes, and managing the economy.
Changes consistent with liberalism that aim to limit the power of the state and increase the power of the market and private property in an economy.
Ethnic Identity/ Ethnicity
Specific attributes and societal institutions that make one group of people culturally different from others.
The state institution that controls how much money is flowing through the economy, as well as how much it costs to borrow money in that economy.
Inflation of more than 50 percent a month for more than two months in a row.
Industry partially owned by the state.
A state encompassing one dominant nation that it claims to embody and represent.
An apparent relationship between two or more variables.
A state that has difficulty fulfilling basic tasks, such as defending territory, making and enforcing rules, collecting taxes, and managing the economy.
A system in which significant state powers, such as taxation, lawmaking, and security, are transferred to regional or local bodies that control specific territory within the country. These powers are defined within the national constitution.
A single producer that is able to dominate the market for a good or service without effective competition.
An outstripping of supply by demand, resulting in an increase in the general price level of goods and services and the resulting loss of value in a country's currency.
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